Osman I - Ottoman Rulers #1

Osman I - Ottoman Rulers #1

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In the latter years of the 13th century Osman I inherited the leadership over the Kayı tribe, which at the time controlled little more than a small town in northwestern Anatolia. By the end of his reign, he had captured a series of fortresses and cities from the declining Byzantines and the state that he left behind to his successors would eventually become one of the greatest Empires in history. It was named after him - The Ottoman Empire.

Music used in this video:

"Fidayda" by Turku, Nomads of the Silk Road
Licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

"Penceresi Yola Karsi" by Turku, Nomads of the Silk Road
Licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

"Sultani Yegah" by Seyyah
Licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Osman I - Ottoman Rulers #1 - History

The father of the Ottoman Empire Osman Gazi was born in 1258 in the town of Sogut. His father was Ertugrul Gazi and his mother was Hayme Sultan. Osman Gazi was a tall man with a round face, dark complexion, hazel eyes, and thick eyebrows. His shoulders were fairly large and the upper part of his body was longer than the other parts. He used to wear a Horasan crown in the style of Cagatay, which was made of red broad cloth.

Osman Gazi was a brilliant leader. He was fair, brave and gracious. He helped the poor. Sometimes he gave his own cloths to the poor. Every mid-day, he gave a lavish meal to all people in his house.

Osman Gazi was just 23 when he succeeded the leadership of the Kayi Clan in Sogut, in 1281. He was a very brilliant rider and a fencer. He married to Mal Sultana who was the daughter of famous Omer bey. Mal Sultan gave birth to Orhan who succeeded the throne.

Osman Gazi appreciated the opinions of Edebali (the famous Ahi Sheik) and he respected him. He often went to Edebali's house where a dervish group meets in Eskisehir Sultanonu and been his guest.

One night, when he was a guest in Sheik Edebali's dergah, he had a dream. As the sun shined, he went to Edebali and told him: "My Sheik, I saw you in my dream. A moon appeared in your breast. It rose, rose and then descended into my breast. From my novel there sprang a tree. It grew up and turned green. It branched out and got complicated. The shadow of its branches covered the whole world. What does my dream mean?

After a little silence, Seyh told him:
I have got good news Osman! God gave you sovereignty and to your son. All the world will be under the protection of your son and my daughter will be the wife to you."


After this unusual event, the Sheik gave his daughter Bala Sultana to Osman and Alaeddin was born from this marriage.Upon his conquest of the fortress of Bilecik, Alaeddin Keykubat, who is the ruler of the Seljuks of Rum, sent him "a horsetail, a standard and a drum" as the insignia of sovereignty in 699 A.H. (1299 A.D.). Thereupon, he minted coins and had the Friday prayers recited in his name alone. His grand vizier was his younger son, Alaeddin Pasha. Osman was the first to Ievy a tax of one "akçe". Osman Gazi was surnamed "Black", which according to an ancient Turcoman tradition signifies brave and heroic. As we learn from the Oðuzname, the same epithet was given to Kara Yusuf, the ruler of Karakoyunlus, and to Kara Yülük Osman Bey, the Sultan of the Akkoyunlus.
The founder of Ottoman empire- risen from Anatolia and reigned for 600 years, over three continents- Osman Gazi, died of gout, in Bursa in 1326. When he died, he left an horse armor, a pair of high boots, a few sun jacks, a sword, a lance, a tirkes, a few horses, three herds of sheep, salt and spoon containers.


His Wifes : Mal Hatun , Rabi'a Bala Hatun
His Sons : Pazarli, Coban, Hamit, Orhan, Ala-ed-din, Ali, Melik, Savci
His Daughters : Fatma Sultan.


Contents

Some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish, probably Atman or Ataman, and was only later changed to the Arabic ʿOsmān. The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν (Atouman) or Ατμάν (Atman), whereas Greek sources regularly render both the Arabic form ʿUthmān and the Turkish version ʿOsmān with θ, τθ, or τσ. An early Arabic source mentioning him also writes ط rather than ث in one instance. Osman may thus have adopted the more prestigious Muslim name later in his life. [9]


Contents

The Ottoman dynasty operated under several basic premises: that the Sultan governed the empire's entire territory, that every male member of the dynastic family was hypothetically eligible to become Sultan, and that only one person at a time could be the Sultan. [3] Such rules were fairly standard for monarchic empires of the time. The certain processes through which men rose to the Sultanate, however, were very specific to the Ottoman Empire. To go into greater detail about these processes, the history of succession between Sultans can be divided into two eras: the period between the reign of Orhan (1323–1362), the first person to inherit the Ottoman sultanate, and the reign of Ahmed I (1603–1617) and the period following Ahmed I's reign.

The succession process during the first period was dominated by violence and intra-familial conflict, in which the various sons of the deceased Sultan fought until only one remained alive and, thus, inherited the throne. This tradition was known as fratricide in the Ottoman Empire, but may have evolved from tanistry, a similar succession procedure that existed in many Turco-Mongolian dynasties predating the Ottomans. [4] Sons of the Sultan were often given provincial territories to govern until the Sultan's death, at which point they would each vie for the throne. [5] Each son had to, according to historian H. Erdem Cipa, "demonstrate that his fortune was superior to the fortunes of his rivals", a demonstration that often took the form of military accomplishment and ruthlessness. [6] This violence was not considered particularly unexpected or unusual. As Cipa has noted, the Ottoman words for "successor" and "conflict" share the same Arabic root, [7] and indeed, all but one of the successions in this roughly 200-year period involved a resolution by combat. [8] Over time, the combat became increasingly prevalent and recognized, especially after a Jannissary uprising negated Murad II's attempt to abdicate the throne peacefully to his son, Mehmed II, in 1444. During the eventual reign of Mehmed II (1451–1481), fratricide was legalized as an official practice during the reign of Bayezid II (1481–1512), fratricide between Bayezid II's sons occurred before Bayezid II himself died [9] and after the reign of Murad III (1574–1595), his successor Mehmed III executed 19 relatives in order to claim the throne. [10]

During the second period, the tradition of fratricide was replaced by a simpler and less violent procedure. Starting with the succession from Ahmed I to Mustafa I in 1617, the Ottoman throne was inherited by the eldest male blood relative – not necessarily son – of the Sultan, regardless of how many eligible family members were alive. [11] The change in succession procedure was likely instigated by numerous factors, including fratricide’s decline in popularity among Ottoman elites [12] and Ahmed I’s decision not to kill Mustafa when inheriting the throne from Mehmed III in 1603. With the door opened for a change in policy, a political debate arose between those who supported unrestricted Sultanic privilege and those who supported a stronger, centralized law system that would supersede even the Sultan’s power to an extent. Historian Baki Tezcan has argued that the latter faction – with the help of the influential şeyhülislam Hocasadeddinzade Esad Efendi [tr] – was able to prevail in this instance. [11] The bloodless succession from Ahmed I to Mustafa I in 1617 "provided a reference for the eventual stabilization of the rule of Ottoman succession, the very regulation of which by an outside force was in effect a constitutional check on the dynastic prerogative," Tezcan has written. [13] The precedent set in 1617 stuck, as the eldest living family member successfully inherited the throne in each of the following 21 successions, with relatively few instances of a son inheriting the throne. [14]

From the fourteenth through the late sixteenth centuries, the Ottomans practiced open succession – something historian Donald Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son." During their father's lifetime, all adult sons of the reigning sultan obtained provincial governorships. Accompanied and mentored by their mothers, they would gather supporters while ostensibly following a Ghazi ethos. Upon the death of the reigning sultan, his sons would fight amongst themselves until one emerged triumphant. A Prince's proximity to Constantinople improved his chances of succession, simply because he would hear of his father's death and declare himself Sultan first. A Sultan could thus hint at his preferred successor by giving a favourite son a closer governorship. Bayezid II, for instance, had to fight his brother Cem Sultan in the 1480s for the right to rule.

Occasionally, the half-brothers would begin the struggle even before the death of their father. Under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566), strife between his sons Mustafa and Selim caused such internal turmoil that Suleiman ordered the deaths of both Mustafa and another son, Bayezid, leaving Selim the sole heir.

During the reigns of Suleiman and Selim II, the Haseki Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: خاصکى سلطان) or chief consort rose to greater prominence. Gaining power within the Imperial Harem, the favourite was able to manoeuvre to ensure the succession for one of her sons. This led to a short period of effective primogeniture. However, unlike the earlier period, when the sultan had already defeated his brothers and potential rivals for the throne in battle, these sultans had the problem of many half-brothers who could act as the focus for rival factions. Thus, to prevent attempts at seizing the throne, reigning sultans practiced fratricide upon accession, starting with Murat I in 1362. [15] Both Murad III and his son Mehmed III had their half-brothers murdered. The killing of all the new sultan's brothers and half-brothers (which were usually quite numerous) was traditionally done by manual strangling with a silk cord. As the centuries passed, the ritual killing was gradually replaced by lifetime solitary confinement in the "Golden Cage" or kafes, a room in the harem from where the sultan's brothers could never escape, unless perchance they became heir presumptive. Some had already become mentally unstable by the time they were asked to reign.

Mehmed III was the last sultan to have previously held a provincial governorship. Sons now remained within the harem until the death of their father. This not only denied them the ability to form powerful factions capable of usurping their father, but also denied them the opportunity to have children while their father remained alive. Thus, when Mehmet's son came to the throne as Ahmed I, he had no children of his own. Moreover, as a minor, there was no evidence he could have children. This had the potential to create a crisis of succession and led to a gradual end to fratricide. Ahmed had some of his brothers killed, but not Mustafa (later Mustafa I). Similarly, Osman II allowed his half-brothers Murad IV and Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire to live. This led to a shift in the 17th century from a system of primogeniture to one based on agnatic seniority, in which the eldest male within the dynasty succeeded, also to guarantee adult sultans and prevent both fratricides as well as the sultanate of women. Thus, Mustafa succeeded his brother Ahmed Suleiman II and Ahmed II succeeded their brother Mehmed IV before being succeeded in turn by Mehmed's son Mustafa II. Agnatic seniority explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brother. It also meant that potential rulers had to wait a long time in the kafes before ascending the throne, hence the old age of certain sultans upon their enthronement. [16] Although attempts were made in the 19th century to replace agnatic seniority with primogeniture, they were unsuccessful, and seniority was retained until the abolition of the sultanate in 1922. [17]

Chronology of Sultans Edit

The Ottoman Dynasty had unusual succession practices compared to other monarchies. [18] Those succession practices changed over time, and ultimately the sultanate was abolished in 1922. Later, the House of Osman (Turkish: Osmanoğlu Ailesi) continued the latest succession practice for the head of the family.

The Ottoman dynasty was expelled from Turkey in 1924 and most members took on the surname Osmanoğlu, meaning "son of Osman." [19] The female members of the dynasty were allowed to return after 1951, [19] and the male members after 1973. [20] Below is a list of people who would have been heirs to the Ottoman throne following the abolition of the sultanate on 1 November 1922. [20] These people have not necessarily made any claim to the throne for example, Ertuğrul Osman said "Democracy works well in Turkey." [21]


Appearances [ edit | edit source ]

Burak Ozcivit played the role of Osman I in the turkish production, Kurulus Osman (translated as Establishment Osman). He is the protagonist of the series and has appeared in ev

ebut on 20th November 2019. There is allegedly going to be 7 seasons of Kurulus Osman.

Osman in Dirilis Ertugrul [ edit | edit source ]

Osman appeared as a kid in the Dirilis Ertugrul series, season 5 (the final series). His monologue in the finale of Dirilis Ertugrul hinted already that there was going to be a sequel focused on the Ottoman found himself in the chest quoting, 'If blood is what you want, then here.' Sheikh Edebali soon called him out on his immature and juvenile behaviour. From this moment on, Osman hasn't been as impatient or ruthless. He has began to make more tactical decisions and has become more strategic.


Osman Reborn The Survival of Ottoman Democracy [An Ottoman TL set in the 1900s]

“The Legacy of the Italo-Ottoman War is one of incredulity in Italy, and one that of pride in the Ottoman Empire, and not without reason. The war did a lot to restore the pride of its citizens in the Ottoman Empire, and the people were once again proud to be called ‘Ottoman’ again. Ethnic boundaries like Turk, Greek, Albanian, Bulgarian, and Arab took a backseat in the war, and again for good reason.

Italy’s claim to Tripolitania and Cyrenaica was not exactly a new thing or new development. They dated as far back as the Ottoman Empire’s defeat to the Russians in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 and the subsequent discussions between the Great Powers during the Congress of Berlin, in which France were given Tunisia and Cyprus respectively. Italy had managed to weasel through a claim in the region, even though the Congress did not allow Italy to take the region in 1878. In 1887, the government of the Italian government exchanged a bunch of secret notes with the government of Great Britain in which the Italian government provided support to eh British occupation of Egypt, in exchange for British support of an Italian Libya sometime in the future. In 1902, the Italian and French governments set aside their historical rivalry by signing a secret treaty between Italian Foreign Minister Giulio Prinetti and French Ambassador Camille Barrere. The secret treaty signed by Italy and France most significantly allowed Italy to have full freedom of intervention in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica.

In 1909, Tsar Nicholas II and King Victor Emmanuel III signed the Racconigi Bargain in which the Russian government acknowledged the Italian claims to the North African region.

Despite these developments however, the Italian government made no real move against the Ottoman Empire other than creating a Libyan section in the Italian Colonial Office in 1908. However the Agadir Crisis in April 1911 saw the French use military action in Morocco turning the historical state into a French protectorate. At this point, the Italian nationalists were baying for Italian expansionism and popular papers like L’Idea Nazionale accompanied by nationalists like Enrico Corradini lobbied hard for the idea of an expanded Italian Colonial Empire. By this point, the Italian leadership decided that it could safely accede to public demands to a colonial project. The Triple Entente were highly supportive. British Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey assured the Italian government that British assistance to the Ottoman government would not be in the cards, and thus by extension, Egyptian assistance to the Ottoman Empire was also out of the cards. The French government secretly contacted the Italian government, stating that they would not interfere in an Italian colonial project in Libya, and the Russian government meanwhile urged Italy to act ‘prompt and resolute manner’.

Giolitti and Italian Foreign Minister Antonino Paterno Castello agreed on 14th September, 1911 to launch a military campaign before the German and Austrian governments were aware of the fact. At that time the German government was locked in a diplomatic conflict with the British government to gain diplomatic influence in the Ottoman Empire, and was trying to thus mediate between Rome and Constantinople whilst the Austrian government wished to keep the Eastern Question down, noting their own large Slavic population within the Dual Monarchy. Austrian Foreign Minister Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal also warned the Italian government that any intervention in Libya would upset the fragile European Balance of Power.

Meanwhile within the Ottoman Empire, the restoration of Ottoman Democracy in 1908 following the 1908 Macedonian Uprising and the infamous IMRO involvement had been a tenuous affair. Democracy was restored in the nation and the monarchy was made into a Prussian-constitutionalist style constitutional monarchy, wherein the monarch still had a lot of soft influence, however was no longer an absolute monarchy. However Ottoman Democracy was trying for the nation. In 1909 a counter coup almost restored absolutist rule in the nation and in the aftermath of the countercoup Abdul Hamid II was dethroned and his relative, ascended to the Osman throne as Sultan and caliph Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed V by contrast to his relative, was relatively fine with remaining a constitutional monarch and supported the Chamber of Deputies and the Ottoman Parliament.

However within the polities of the Ottoman Empire itself, there was discontent. The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) often clashed with the Ottoman Democratic Party led by Ibrahim Temo and the Liberal Union led by Prince Sabbahadin. The Liberal Union had been temporarily disbanded in 1909 following the 1909 coup attempt, however they were brought back in by successive Grand Viziers.

The two years under democratic rule, no matter how tenuous it had been, was also fruitful for the empire. Railroads were being laid down, literacy had gone up, and the economy of the nation was starting to recover at a first rate as well, and the country was truly leaving behind the vestiges of feudalism and turning into a modern Empire-state. The economy grew by 7.1% in 1909 and 8.2% in 1910 showing astounding progress, and the OPDA or the Ottoman Public Debt Administration showed a lowering in Ottoman debt by 13% in the two years, showing remarkable economic progress.

When the Libyan Question started to rise, the Ottoman Empire’s government was led by Grand Vizier Ibrahim Hakki Pasha. Hakki Pasha was a mediocre Grand Vizier all things considered, however one of his major contributions to the Empire was in the fact that on September 15, 1911 he opened the Chamber of Deputies asking the Chamber for authorization for military supplies and 4 divisions to be shipped over to Libya in case of a ‘state of conflict and intervention’ between the ‘Ottoman Empire’ and ‘Italian Kingdom’. [1]

The Chamber of Deputies was bitterly divided over this issue. The CUP was reluctant to do the following measures given by Hakki Pasha, and the Liberal Party and Democratic Party agitated for the government to take measures to defend Libya. It was in the end the votes of the Libyan deputies in the Chamber (14 out of the 60 Arab seats in the Chamber) that turned the vote in favor of preparations to take place. The Chamber voted 154-130 in favor of shipping 4 divisions to Libya by September 27th, and readying the Ottoman Armed Forces in the region, as well as the Libyan irregulars in the area.

That evening, the first troops started to board transport ships in Izmir, Constantinople and Mersin.

On September 24th, the Italian government still unaware of the fact that the Ottoman government was starting to recognize the danger that Italy posed to Libya, contacted the Austrian government to mediate negotiations with the Ottoman government. The Austrian government complied. The Italian delegation demanded Ottoman Libya to be given to Italy. The Ottoman government, still unsure whether it wanted a confrontation with Italy, nonetheless, sought a compromise and put out a proposal that would share sovereignty in Libya between the Ottoman Empire and Italy, much like Bosnia in Austria-Hungary and Cyprus with Britain. The Italian government rejected this offer, and on September 29, 1911 the Italian Kingdom declared War on the Ottoman Empire.”

Prologue of The War of Sands: A History of Ottoman Libya by Sir Douglass Howe, published in The University of London in 1988.

[1] – this motion was raised in the Chamber otl, however political bickering got in the way of the proposal. This of course does not happen ittl.


Osman Reborn The Survival of Ottoman Democracy [An Ottoman TL set in the 1900s]

Great chapter
If the OE servive , then the empire will have a huge population increase in the future (1 religion 2 oil 3 conservative Society) .
Also the region of Middle East was controlled by multi ethnic empires for soo long of its history (the last Arab ruler was the Abbasid's). so an Arab revolt with a stable OE will not be a big problem also the the idea of selling the Balkan lands is. no country in its own mind will do it , especially in the 19th century where we have the Empires of the world fighting for more land and colonies and in the case of the ottomans the Balkans is a core territory

Sārthākā

Great chapter
If the OE servive , then the empire will have a huge population increase in the future (1 religion 2 oil 3 conservative Society) .
Also the region of Middle East was controlled by multi ethnic empires for soo long of its history (the last Arab ruler was the Abbasid's). so an Arab revolt with a stable OE will not be a big problem also the the idea of selling the Balkan lands is. no country in its own mind will do it , especially in the 19th century where we have the Empires of the world fighting for more land and colonies and in the case of the ottomans the Balkans is a core territory

Sārthākā

Sārthākā

Mafio ball

Osman Aga

Sārthākā

Chapter 5: The 1912 Ottoman General Elections.

***

“General Elections were held in the Ottoman Empire in April 1912, during when the people of the empire were still happy and drunk with victory after the end of the Italo-Ottoman War of 1911. The ruling Committee of Union and Progress, even though they had seen the war to the end victoriously, many blamed the CUP for their ultranationalist stance of not allowing the Italians invest in Libya, which allowed the Italians to use a casus belli to invade the region (indeed, no economic freedom in Libya was one of the casus belli’s used by Italy to invade Libya) and for ignoring the looming danger of the Italian invasion for far too long. The news that the Ottoman military had been few weeks away from drying out of ammunition before pushing the Italians out had been common knowledge and many put this against the CUP as well. The regional population and ethnic minorities also remembered very well how the CUP had imposed Ottoman Turkish as the only language in ottoman schools throughout the country controlling the education system through the national curriculum.

The major parties contesting the election other than the Committee of Union and Progress was the Liberal Union or the Freedom and Accord Party led this time by Ali Kemal, who had won the by-elections to the top spot of the party. Ali Kemal, alongside his deputy, Syrja Bey Vlora, an ethnic Albanian, spearheaded the Liberal Union’s party campaign for the election. The Liberal Union ran a platform of mild-ottomanism (Rather than the radical sense of ottomanism that the CUP wanted to throw at the minorities), teaching Ottoman Turkish and ethnic languages in schools and also ran on the platform of being the middle-ground for Turks and ethnic minorities in the empire.

The third party to run for the election was the Ottoman Democratic Party led by Ibrahim Temo. Temo ran on a platform of democratic liberalism and ran on a platform of economic focus. He laid out plans for economic development throughout the empire, and increasing the economic standards of living in the country as well as upgrading the aging infrastructure of the nation, and connecting the rural areas via new railroads. He also backed teaching both Ottoman Turkish and regional languages in schools, rather than just Ottoman Turkish.

The fourth party to take part in the election was the Armenakan Party. This party, unlike other Armenian parties, did not call for Armenian independence, and as such were allowed to challenge the elections. This party was more of an autonomist party, and chose to champion the rights of the Armenian population of the country and their religious rights. They also attracted a bit of Jewish and Greek votes as well due to their religious stances, which called for equal standing of all religions in the country (with Islam being first among equals due to the Sultan’s stature). The party was led by ethnic Armenian Mekertich Portukalian. It had once been militant in nature during the reign of Abdul Hamid II and had preached Armenian independence, however had mellowed out during the 1910-12 years, which made them legal once again.

The last party seriously campaigning during the elections was the Social Democratic Hunchakian Party. This party was social democratic in nature, mixed economic ideals, whilst it also tried to juggle religious politics, with which they supported the Caliph, however guaranteed the rights of the Jewish and Christian population of the empire. The party was led by ethnic Armenian Gevorg Gharadijan.

The other parties taking part in the election were too small, and likely not going to pass the five percent benchmark. As such the rest were all independents, vying for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies.

  • CUP: 31% (89 seats)
  • Liberal Union: 27% (77 seats)
  • Ottoman Democratic Party: 22% (63 seats)
  • Armenakan Party: 8% (23 seats)
  • Social Democratic Hunchakian Party: 7% (20 seats)
  • Independents: 5% (16 seats)

Whilst the CUP had won the most seats in the Chamber, the CUP had not won the majority of seats allowed to make a government, and instead the Liberal Union, Ottoman Democratic Party and the Armenakan Party instead announced a coalition government between the three parties, forming the government. The CUP and the Social Democratic Hunchakian Party instead formed the opposition in the Chamber of Deputies. The leader of the Liberal Union, Ali Kemal was elected Grand Vizier (and nominally appointed by the Sultan) and he formed his government.

  • Grand Vizier: Ali Kemal (Liberal Union)
  • Minister of the Interior: Ibrahim Temo (Ottoman Democratic Party)
  • Minister of the Navy: Ciballi Mehmed Bey (Independent)
  • Minister of War: Mahmud Shevket Pasha (Independent)
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs: Syrja Bey Vlora (Liberal Union)
  • Minister of Justice: Aristidi Pasha (Ottoman Democratic Party)
  • Minister of Agriculture: Riza Nur (Liberal Union)
  • Minister of Education: Riza Tevfik Bolukbasi (Liberal Union)
  • Minister of Finances, Economics, Industry and Trade: Mizanci Murat (Ottoman Democratic Party)
  • Minister of Pious Foundations: Mekertich Portukalian (Armenakan)

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, however soon came into conflict with his political party, the Committee of Union and Progress, for his central ideology of nationalism and ottomanism, and his backing of the De-politicization of the armed forces. As such in March, Mustafa Kemal Pasha left the CUP, and instead joined the Ottoman Democratic Party as an observer, as the party did not wish to have an active member of the armed forces as a full member of the party. Nonetheless, the his victories in Libya made him a household name.” Mustafa Kemal Pasha: A Biography, University of Angora, 2008

“Within the Balkan Countries of Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro, the Ottoman victory in the Italo-Ottoman War had been a massive surprise for the countries, and the utter Italian disaster, in terms of its economy, meant that the countries could no longer count on Italian investment to shore their economies up to shape as well. This made the Serbo-Bulgarian alliance, made in secret in October, 1911 quite redundant, and the Ottoman-Greek Treaty signed in December, 1911 basically kept Greece out of any Balkan intrigue in favor of the Serbs. With nothing pulling them closer, the Serbo-Bulgarian alliance, seemed to be on the verge of collapse, however the intervention of Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov kept the situation calm, and instead the Russian foreign minister pointed out that the Ottomans, drunk with victory may try to use force to stop the disputed claims in the Balkans, and an alliance would be the only thing to keep the Ottomans at bay. He also pointed out to Serbia, that the hostile Ottoman and Austrian Empires would not allow the Serbs access to the seas for Serbian economic interests and that the Bulgarian ports were a heaven sent for the Serbian economy. He pointed out to Bulgaria, that no matter how militarized Bulgaria was, it alone would not be able to fight the Ottomans, and needed the Serbian military for defense as well. The alliance endured when on April 27th, Bulgarian Defense Minister Mihail Savov confirmed that the alliance would be staying between the two nations, however the debate that was now raging was about the secrecy of the alliance. Many debated that coming out in the open would be better, however for now, the Russians advised to keep the alliance secret.

  • The army training system of the Ottoman Armed Forces would be revamped, with more daily military moves and maneuvers being practiced on part of the army and officers.
  • Redif formations were to be reformed along the lines of Prussian and German reservist forces, to create a better reservist force in the empire.
  • Support services for the army, like demolition, supply, logistics, medical care etc, would be allocated 15% more funds, and given high priority.
  • Officers would not be allowed to get involved in politics, other than observer status at most.

The Ottoman Economy had also been shown its weaknesses. The food supply of the country was not adequate, and the railroad system was extremely inadequate which made the economy extremely vulnerable. However, the economy also had an out. The Italians had been forced to waive around 33% of the debt owed by the Ottoman government to the Italian government, meaning that the Ottoman government had reduced around 70% of the total debt owed by the Ottomans to Italy throughout the war, and had freed up around 11 million pounds for the economy. This 11 million pound was to be funneled into a new economic project called the Hejaz-Damascus railway. This railway had started construction way back, but had stopped due to a lack of funds, and the Germans not having investor confidence in the Ottoman Empire. The first was solved due to the waiving of debt, and the second was also solved by the victory of in war, which had made ottoman stocks in the international market rise by around a good 6.5%. The construction would start again in June, 1912.” Excerpts from ‘The Ottoman War in the Sands’.


Contents

The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I in 1299. His son, Orhan, captured its first capital, Bursa, from the Byzantine Empire. In the late 1300s, the Ottomans began consolidating power, especially in the Balkans, where Serbia was defeated in 1389 at the Battle of Kosovo Polje by Sultan Murad I. He died at the battle, and Bayezid I took control. At the 1396 Battle of Nicopolis, a large crusade of the Western European powers was defeated. Despite the victory, Bayezid was deposed by Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His absence led to a civil war, referred to as the Ottoman Interregnum. Mehmed Çelebi won and became Mehmed I. His son, Murad II had to battle pretenders to the throne backed by the Byzantine Empire. He retaliated with an attack on Constantinople, and Venice helped the Byzantines. Murad defeated them at Thessaloniki. He also defeated the Karamanid beylik (principality), Hungary, Poland, and Wallachia at Varna in 1444. John Hunyadi, a Hungarian general, tried his hand at defeating the Turks but lost in 1448.

Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on May 29, 1453. He also subjugated Albania and expanded tolerance for the Orthodox Church. Mehmed continued his expansion, followed by his son Bayezid II. Selim I conquered Egypt and the Levant, which were ruled by the Mamluks, in early 1517. He also obliterated the Safavid Persians at Chaldiran in 1514. The Ottomans were at odds with Portugal over their expansion as well. Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim's son, captured Belgrade and most of Hungary after the Battle of Mohács in 1526. His Siege of Vienna was repulsed by the deeply-divided Holy Roman Empire in 1529. Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia became tributary to the Ottoman Empire soon afterwards.

In the east, the Ottomans captured Baghdad from the Safavids and partitioned the Caucasus with them. Meanwhile, Suleiman allied Francis I of France over mutual hatred of the Habsburgs. This led to Ottoman activity in the Mediterranean, where Rhodes, Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli would eventually be captured. Barbarossa Hayreddin led the Ottoman advance. In 1566, Suleiman died, and many historians consider that the start of the Ottoman stagnation.

The Ottomans lost the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 by Philip II of Spain and his Holy League. The Ottomans quickly recovered by capturing Cyprus from the Republic of Venice. However, the defeat shattered the myth of Ottoman invincibility. The Ottomans suffered many defeats in the next 30 years: the Long War with the Austrian Empire ended in stalemate, and the Safavids invaded the eastern Ottoman provinces. Murad IV recaptured Iraq and the Caucasus from Persia. The "Sultanate of Women" became an nickname for the Ottoman Empire after consorts Kösem Sultan and Turhan Sultan became important in the empire and sometimes made even economic decisions in the Sultan's place. The Grand Vizier also took a greater role under the leadership of the Köprülüs. Crete was captured from Venice and southern Ukraine was captured from Poland.

However, Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha carelessly opened up the empire to attack when he attacked Vienna. The Austrians, Poles, Russians, and Venetians all attacked the Ottomans back in the Great Turkish War. Austria and Poland attacked the overstretched Turks in Hungary and Transylvania while Russia hammered Crimea. Venice settled to attack Greece. The warring sides signed the Treaty of Karlowitz, ceding Hungary and Transylvania to Austria, Podolia (southern Ukraine) to Poland, Morea (southern Greece) to Venice, and Azov (a Black Sea port) to Russia.

Russia and Sweden went to war, and the Ottomans got involved by retaking Azov and then making peace. Austria, Russia, Venice, and the Ottomans would go to war several times. By 1739, the Ottomans had actually retaken the Morea and Serbia. In the 1740s and the 1750s, the Ottomans began to modernize their military, but in the 1760s, the Ottomans went to war with Russia again. Russia took over Crimea in 1783 and claimed that Orthodox Christians living in the Ottoman Empire were under Russian protection. Selim III continued modernising the military, but the elite Janissary corps troops revolted. Napoleon attacked Egypt but was repulsed by the British.

Serbia revolted and gained nominal independence in 1815, but they were still vassals of the Ottoman Empire. Greece won their independence after a long war of independence from 1821 to 1829. The al-Saud family revolted in 1811 with the support of the Wahhabi sect. Then, Egypt under Muhammad Ali almost captured Constantinople, but the Russians repulsed them. The Egyptians settled with the Levant, and the Ottomans tried to retake it but were were soundly defeated. The Ottomans was dubbed the "sick man of Europe" because of the empire's incompetence in international affairs.

The Ottoman Tanzimat period brought reform: conscription was introduced, a central bank was formed, homosexuality was decriminalised, the law was secularised, and the guilds were replaced with factories. The Christian part of the empire became much more advanced than the Muslim part, and the divide created tension. In the 1850s, the British and the French helped the Ottomans in the Crimean War. The Ottoman debts led to a state of bankruptcy, and the European countries began providing loans and controlling the finances of the empire. Worse yet, the Ottomans began war with Russia over Bulgarian independence. Ar the 1878 Congress of Berlin, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro gained complete independence. Bulgaria remained a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. The British took Cyprus and in 1882 Egypt.

In 1908, the Ottomans underwent a revolution by the Young Turks. Abdul Hamid II abdicated, and Mehmed V was instated. Bulgaria gained independence, and Austria invaded Bosnia that same year. In 1912, the Ottomans lost Libya to the Italians. The ensuing Balkan Wars saw the Ottomans lose all of their European territories except Eastern Thrace to a combined force of Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria. The Second Balkan War allowed the Ottomans to attack Bulgaria in conjunction with Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. Their victory meant little since the unrest continued, with a 1909 countercoup to the Young Turk coup and then three countercoups.

In 1914, although they were utterly disorganised, the Ottomans attacked Russia and declared war. Britain and France went to war with the Ottomans, and World War I had come to Turkey.

The Ottomans early in the war performed better than expected. They won the Battle of Gallipoli, partly because of the incompetence of the British commanders. The Ottomans also won the Battle of Kut though Iraq was lost later. In 1915, some of the worst mass killings in history began. Armenians, Assyrians, Greeks, and others were targeted, and many as 2.5 million people died. The Ottoman Empire fell soon after the Arabs revolted in 1916 with British help. The empire fell after the Sinai, Palestine, Iraq, Syria, and eventually Anatolia itself fell. The Ottomans surrendered in 1918.

The Turkish War of Independence was a series of ethnic cleansing and military campaigns by The Turkish National Movement, which lead to the foundation of the Republic of Turkey. [2] In 1923, the Ottoman Empire formally ceased to exist.

The empire was a hereditary monarchy. The ruler's title was 'Sultan'. (It was used in front of the name, e.g. "Sultan Süleyman".) The title of 'Sultan' was also used for the wives and the daughters of the monarchs. (It was used at the end of the name, e.g. "Hürrem Sultan".) In the early years of the empire, shahzadahs, the sons of the Sultan, were sent to different parts of the empire (Sanjaks) to get experience of governing. Later they might be candidates for the Sultanate and Caliphate.

After Ahmed this system changed. In the new system the Sultan would keep his male relatives locked in a small apartment called a kafes where they would never be able to see the outside world, and would therefore be unable to take power from him. Often, a new Sultan would have his male relatives killed, a simpler solution since it removed competition for the Sultanate and prevented rebel movements. However, the women in his harem often sought greater status and influence, and the Sultan's mother might become a powerful political force in the Empire. Each mother in the harem would try to make her own son the next Sultan, since they knew he would probably be killed if he was not.

The Sultans gradually lost their ability to govern far-away territories well. Distant governors did whatever they wanted and made their own laws instead of obeying the Sultan. By its end, the Ottoman Empire grew so worn out and corrupt that it was ready to collapse.

Bursa was the first capital of the Ottoman Empire. Edirne in Thrace became the capital city of the Ottoman Empire in 1365, until Istanbul was conquered by the Turks and became the empire's final capital.

Many places were vassal states to the empire, rather than being directly ruled. They included Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia, (all of them later joined to form Romania), Caucasus (Georgia, Dagestan, and Chechnya). Their rulers received a degree of independence and autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, but they had to pay more money (tax or tribute) to the sultan.


Main keywords of the article below: 1258, bursa, empire, sogut, ad, osman, ottoman, founder, born, 1, sultan, first.

KEY TOPICS
The founder and the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Osman, was born in 1258 AD in Sogut, near Bursa. [1] Osman I (smn) or Othman I (thmn), 12591326, leader of the Ottoman Turks and founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. [2] Osman I (1259-1326) was the leader of a tribe of conquering warriors, who formed an independent state out of which arose the great Ottoman Empire. [2]

When the Seljuk Empire remained rulerless after the exile of Alaaddin, Osman Gazi reunited them under his rule in 1299 marking the history as the foundation of the Ottoman Empire. [1]

The dream became an important foundational myth for the empire, imbuing the House of Osman with God-given authority over the earth and providing its fifteenth-century audience with an explanation for Ottoman success. [3] Besides military actions, Osman Gazi also established all new measures to form a new empire, such as bringing new laws based on Seljuk laws as well, adopting taxes, minting the first Ottoman coins (Akce), and so on. [1]

Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. [4] He and the dynasty bearing his name later established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate). [3] While the Ottoman Empire would experience many ups and downs in its illustrious 600 year history, the origins and rise of the empire must be understood to fully comprehend how the Ottomans viewed themselves and their role in the world. [5] Although expansion ended after 1683 and decline began, the Ottoman Empire continued to exist until the first World War. [2]

The Sword of Osman ( Turkish : Taklide-Seif ) was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire. [6] Turkish chieftain Osman (1258-1324), who is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Empire. [7] It was from this that Osman fought to broaden his realm against the Byzantines, taking important defenses, conquering Bursa and becoming regarded as founder of the Ottoman empire. [8] Template:Contains Ottoman Turkish text Osman I or Othman I or Osman Gazi (1258 - 1326) Ottoman Turkish : سلطان عثمان غازى Sultan Osman Ghazi, Turkish : Osman Gazi or Osman Bey or I. Osman, Osman Gazi Han ), nicknamed "Kara" for his courage, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks, and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. [6]

Although Osman I gave his name to the Ottoman Empire, it was his father Ertugrul who formed a principality around Sögüt. [8] Osman Gazi tomb is in Bursa province, which was the second capital of the Ottoman Empire. [9]

Osman 1 was also A very important sultan during the Ottoman time Period. [10] Adventurous warriors were rushing into Ottoman lands from Islamic lands for Ottoman land was the frontier of the Seljuk Empire and this spread so much that non-Muslim bounty-lovers went to get the goods with Osman. [9]

Portrait of Murad II (Amasya, 1404-Edirne, 1451), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, illustration from Turkish Memories, Arabic manuscript, Cicogna Codex, 17th century. [8] Newspaper illustration of Abdülhamit (Abdul Hamid) II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from a 1907 article entitled "The Sour Sick Sultan as He Is". [8] We may never know if the sultan, who established a dynasty from the late 13th to early 14th centuries that would go on to become the nascent Ottoman Empire, had a dream like that of Martin Luther King. [9] That dynasty didn’t quite make it to the end of the war, whereas the Ottoman Empire survived for a few years after it. [7] Putting aside all the nationalist politics, the Ottoman Empire is a fascinating subject covering a dynasty that lasted 600 years. [7]

Mehmed VI took power at a critical time, as the victorious allies of World War One were dealing with a defeated Ottoman Empire and their nationalist movement. [8] During the last war the Ottoman Empire was involved in (the First World War) the Ottomans were on the same side as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, led by a Habsburg. [7]

He conquered Constantinople and a host of other territory which shaped the form of the Ottoman Empire and led to its dominance over Anatolia and the Balkans. [8]

He and the dynasty bearing his name later established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire, the state, while only a small principality during Osmans lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death. [11] Malhun Hatun - Malhun Hatun was the first wife of Osman I, the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. [11] Bursa was named the capital, and it was where the first emperor of the Ottoman empire, Osman, was buried. [12] The emirate of Osman (1288-1326), son of the Turkish chieftan Ertogrul, emerged as the most powerful one and was the nucleus around which the Ottoman Empire developed. [13] It was Osman, the son of Erturul, the Ottoman Empire is named after. [14] According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks, the Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c.1299 to 1922. [11] Rabia Bala Hatun - R bia B l H tun was the wife of Ottoman Sultan Osman I. She was the daughter of the famous Sheikh Edebali and the mother of Alaeddin Pasha of the Ottoman Empire and her identity is being frequently confused with the mother of Orhan Bey, Malhun Hatun. [11]

Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate - The abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 1 November 1922 ended the Ottoman Empire, which had lasted since 1299. [11]

In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. [11] The Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire, Osman I had a close relationship with a local religious leader of dervishes named Sheikh Edebali, whose daughter he married. [11] Named after its founder Osman Bey, the Ottomans were settled as a tribe in Sogut at the beginning of the great 600 hundred-year-old Empire. [15] The dream became an important foundational myth for the empire, imbuing the House of Osman with God-given authority over the earth and providing its fifteenth-century audience with an explanation for Ottoman success, the dream story may also have served as a form of compact: just as God promised to provide Osman and his descendants with sovereignty, it was also implicit that it was the duty of Osman to provide his subjects with prosperity. [11] Sultan Osman Gazi died in either 1323 or 1324, and Orhan succeeded him, according to Ottoman tradition, when Orhan succeeded his father, he proposed to his brother, Alaeddin, that they should share the emerging empire. [11] There were thirty six Ottoman Sultans who ruled over the Empire, and each one was a direct descendant through the male line of the first Ottoman Sultan, Sultan Osman I. The Ottoman dynasty is known in Turkish as Osmanl, meaning "House of Osman". [16] The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. [11] The Ottoman dynasty is known in modern Turkish as Osmanlı Hanedanı, meaning House of Osman, in Ottoman Turkish it was known as Hanedan-ı l-i Osman, thus they still formally acknowledged the sovereignty of the Seljuk Empire and its successor, the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. [11]

Composed of a womans silver toilet articles, it is now in the British Museum, Bursa became the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantines in 1326. [11] The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. [11]

Sultan Mehmed VI dissolved the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire on 11 April 1920, the Constantinople government, with the bureaucracy, but without the parliament, was left active with the Sultan as the decision maker. [11] Sultan ul-Mujahidin as champion of jihad, ghaznavid Sultanate Sultans of Great Seljuk Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, the Osmanli Elisu Sultanate and a few others. [11] After the international recognition of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT) headquartered in Ankara, by means of the Treaty of Lausanne signed on 24 July 1923, the GNAT proclaimed on 29 October 1923 the establishment of the Republic of Turkey as the new Turkish State that succeeded and formally ended the defunct Ottoman Empire, in line with the treaty. [16] In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920-23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. [11] The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. [11] The Ottoman Empire or Sublime Ottoman State (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliyye-yi Osmâniyye (also Osmanl Devleti), Modern Turkish: Osmanl Devleti or Osmanl mparatorluu) was a Turkish empire which lasted from 27 July 1299 to 29 October 1923. [16] The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and longest lasting empires in history such that the Ottoman State, its politics, conflicts, and cultural heritage in a vast geography provide one of the longest continuous narratives. [16] Rise of the Ottoman Empire - The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29,1453. [11] His family had ruled since 1299 in an unbroken lineage throughout the empires history, the Ottoman dynasty maintained supreme authority over the Ottoman Empires polity. [11] The last of the Seljuq vassals of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308, the dissolution of the Seljuq state left behind a number of Anatolian beyliks, among them that of the Ottoman dynasty, which eventually became the Ottoman Empire. [11] The final blow for the Karamanids was struck by Mehmed II who conquered their lands, many of the former Anatolian beyliks became the basis for administrative subdivisions in the Ottoman Empire. [11]

During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. [11] Plato described the Greeks living round the Aegean like frogs around a pond, the Aegean Sea was later invaded by the Persians and the Romans, and inhabited by the Byzantine Empire, the Bulgarians, the Venetians, the Genoese, the Seljuq Turks, and the Ottoman Empire. [11] The Beylik of Osmanoğlu Dynasty who were later to found the Ottoman Empire was situated to the northwest, around Söğüt, along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched Karasids, Sarukhanids, Aydinids, Menteşe and Teke principalities. [11] The district has been shaped by several civilizations, Rome, Byzantium, Seljuqians, the first marks of the Ottoman Empire exist within Osmangazi where it extended from the foot of Uludağ to the plain of Bursa. [11] The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes, in the 9th century, the Oghuzes from the Aral steppes drove Bechens from the Emba and Ural River region toward the west. [11] The Imperial Ottoman family ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1922. [16] With the death of Selim, his son Suleyman took the sultanate and under his rule the Ottoman Empire would experience further expansion and glory. [17]

The executioners of the Ottoman Empire were never noted for their mercy just ask the teenage Sultan Osman II, who in May 1622 suffered an excruciating death by "compression of the testicles"as contemporary chronicles put itat the hands of an assassin known as Pehlivan the Oil Wrestler. [18] The great Ottoman Empire or the Turkish Empire was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia. [19] The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I, a leader of the Turkish tribes in Anatolia in 1299. [20]

Osman I founded the Ottoman Empire around 1299 ACE. At the time, the Seljuk Turks controlled most of the Middle East and parts of the Anatolian Peninsula (Modern Turkey). [21] Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, had a dream in which a tree sprouted from his navel.As the tree grew, its shade covered the earth as Osman's empire grew, it, too, covered the earth. [22] Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire arrives in our bookstores at a time of intense interest and a flurry of publications on the pre-modern Middle East. [23]

Not since the publication of Stanford J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw's History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (vol. 1: Empire of the Gazis and vol. 2: Reform, Revolution and Republic, 1976-77) has the English-speaking world had a serious, comprehensive narrative of the Ottoman world at hand. [23] The tradition draws on Gibbon and Von Hammer Shaw's work reflects the historiography in the subtitle of volume 1: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808 and of volume 2: The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808-1975. [23]

With few exceptions, recent studies of the Ottomans are divided into two empires: from sultans Osman to Suleyman the Magnificent, extended to 1650 by most, and the era of reform (Tanzimat), from 1839 to 1918 (or to 1923 if the narrative includes the emergence of the Turkish republic). [23] The birth of the empire originated with the conquest of the Turkish tribe of Eskenderum and the city of Eskiᗾhir ( Turkish for 'Old Town') in 1301 - 1303, although Osman had already in 1299 declared the independence from the Seljuk Empire of his own small kingdom, the Ottoman Principality. [24]

The Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) was an imperial power that existed from 1299 to 1923 (634 years!!). [19] Although in power for over 600 years, the Ottoman Empire will best be remembered for its glory years of strong leadership and cultural influences that affected the lands they conquered. [25] He focuses on the last five hundred years, after Egypt became the crown jewel of the Ottoman Empire, and masterfully embeds his history into the complex ecologies surrounding the Nile River, an enduring source of both life and cruel natural disasters. [22] That situation could change with the publication of the Cambridge History of Turkey volume 3: The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603-1839, edited by Suraiya N. Faroqhi (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), the first of a four-volume set. [23] Capital punishment was so common in the Ottoman Empire that there was a Fountain of Execution in the First Court, where the chief executioner and his assistant went to wash their hands after decapitating their victimsritual strangulation being reserved for members of the royal family and their most senior officials. [18] When the city falls, Bursa is made into the capital of the Ottoman Empire. [25] Some of the new approaches can be sampled in The Empire in the City: Arab Provincial Capitals in the Late Ottoman Empire, eds. Jens Hanssen, Thomas Philipp, and Stefan Weber (Wuürzburg : Ergon in Kommission, 2002). [23] In 1453, Mehmet II the Conqueror led the Ottoman Empire in capturing Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantium Empire. [20] Mehmet II, Murad's son, brought the Ottoman Empire to its peak when his troops conquered Constantinople. [21] Bayezid dies within the year, and the Ottoman Empire is split among his sons. [25] The Ottoman Empire ruled a large portion of the Middle East and Eastern Europe for over 600 years. [20] Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, founder of the Albanian Köprülü political dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was appointed by Turhan, mother of the seven-year-old ruler Mehmed IV, to become grand vizier. [19] Though actually two different battles, the goal of the Balkan Wars is to take over the European lands that belong to the Ottoman Empire. [25] Ottoman Empire with its mind and brawniness, replaced the Byzantine Empire as the major power in the Eastern Mediterranean. [19] He turned Constantinople into the capital of the Ottoman Empire and renamed it Istanbul. [20]

The Ottomans did not record the history of Osman's life until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after his death. [3] According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's father Ertuğrul led the Turkic Kayı tribe west from Central Asia into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught. [3] According to later Ottoman tradition, Osman's ancestors were descendants of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks. [3] The exact date of Osman's birth is unknown, and very little is known about his early life and origins due to the scarcity of sources and the many myths and legends which came to be told about him by the Ottomans in later centuries. [3] The English word "Ottoman" is a corruption of Osman's name. [5]

The Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire. [3] Many scholars of the early Ottomans regard it as a later fabrication meant to shore up dynastic legitimacy with regard to the empire's Turkish rivals in Anatolia. [3] As ruler of the Osmanli (Ottoman) state in nw Anatolia ( Turkey ), he declared his independence of the Seljuk sultan in c. 1290. [2] This connection between Ertuğrul and the Seljuks, however, was largely invented by court chroniclers a century later, and the true origins of the Ottomans thus remain obscure. [3] From the 16th century onward a number of dynastic myths are used by Ottoman and Western authors, endowing the founder of the dynasty with more exalted origins. [3] This highly symbolic narrative should be understood, however, as an example of eschatological mythology required by the subsequent success of the Ottoman emirate to surround the founder of the dynasty with supernatural vision, providential success, and an illustrious genealogy. [3]

Then he captured the first significant city in his territories, Yenişehir, which became the Ottoman capital. [3] Beyond the likelihood that the first Ottoman sultan was a historical figure, a Turcoman Muslim marcher-lord of the Byzantine frontier in north-west Anatolia whose father may have been called Ertuğrul, there is little other biographical information about Osman. [3] The Sword of Osman ( Turkish : Taklid-i Seyf ) was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony of the Ottoman Sultans. [3]

All future sultans of the empire were girded with the sword of Osman when they took power. [5] In recognition of the importance of the victory, Osman then directed Orhan to bury him at Bursa and to make it the capital city of the new Empire. [2] This dream, so obviously a prophesy of a great and powerful empire that would result from a union of Osman and Malkhatun, caused Malkhatun's father to recant and agree to the marriage. [2] It was this time that historians consider the transformation the beylik of Osman into an empire. [5] It is as the founder of this great Empire that Osman acquires his fame. [2] Although this story of Osman's vision of empire is probably only a legend created through hindsight, Osman and his descendants did, indeed, create an empire. [2] First communicated in this form in the later fifteenth century, a century and a half after Osman's death in about 1323, this dream became one of the most resilient founding myths of the empire. [3] The state, while only a small principality during Osman's lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death. [3]

By the time of his death, Osman had created a state independent of either Byzantine or Mongol control. [2] From a small Turkish state in Anatolia in the 1300s, the House of Osman ended up ruling a state that extended throughout Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa in the 1500s. [5] Osman appears to have followed the strategy of increasing his territories at the expense of the Byzantines while avoiding conflict with his more powerful Turkish neighbors. [3] In 1302, after soundly defeating a Byzantine force near Nicaea, Osman began settling his forces closer to Byzantine controlled areas. [3] With Sögüt as their base, Osman and the Muslim frontier warriors ( Ghazis ) under his command waged a slow and stubborn conflict against the Byzantines, who sought to defend their territories in the hinterland of the Asiatic shore opposite Constantinople (now Istanbul). [4] The Sword of Osman was girded on to the new sultan by the Sharif of Konya, a Mevlevi dervish, who was summoned to Constantinople for that purpose. [3]

Unlike his father before him, Osman bequeathed to his son an independent state. [2] His birth date is unknown and his symbolic significance as the father of the dynasty has encouraged the development of mythic tales regarding the ruler’s life and origins, however, historians agree that before 1300, Osman was simply one among a number of Turkoman tribal leaders operating in the Sakarya region. [3] By the time Osman assumed the leadership of his father's tribe in 1288, the stronger Ghazi leaders had begun, through conquest, to form larger principalities. [2]

It is uncertain whether the minting of coins and the pronouncement of prayers to the house of Osman, the signs of independence, began in the last years of Osman's rule or in the beginning of Orhan's. [2] Since Osman's troops could not take the city by force, Osman put Bursa under siege to force a surrender. [2] On reaching the Sakarya River and the Sea of Marmara by 1308, Osman had effectively isolated the city of Bursa. [2] On his deathbed at Sogut, Osman lived long enough to hear from his son of the surrender of Bursa. [2] Osman was succeded by his son Orhan, who captured Bursa on April 6, 1326. [4] With all the land around it occupied by Osman, Bursa was still able to receive supplies and communication through the port of Mudanya. [2]

Osman may thus have adopted the more prestigious Muslim name later in his life. [3] The physical union of Osman with a saint's daughter gave the dynasty a spiritual legitimacy and became, after the 1480s, an integral feature of dynastic mythology. [3] Osman became chief, or bey, upon his father’s death in c. 1280. [3] The year 1326 also marked a turning point with the death of Osman. [2]

Osman and his men captured the key forts and cities of Eskishehir, Inonu, Bilejik, and eventually Yenishehir where he established a capital for the new Ottoman state. [2]

Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that. [3] If it were true, it means that it was likely covered up in order to avoid tarnishing the reputation of the Ottoman dynasty's founder with the murder of a family member. [3] ʿO s mān Ġāzī Turkish : Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. [3] Osman I, also called Osman Gazi, (born c. 1258--died 1324 or 1326), ruler of a Turkmen principality in northwestern Anatolia who is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state. [4]

…Ottomans, named for their founder, Osman I (ruled 1281-1324), was located not on the coast, where raiding had its limits, but in Bithynia just facing Constantinople. [4]

The Byzantine Empire--the eastern Roman Empire based around the capital city of Constantinople (Istanbul)--had endured for nine centuries but was beginning the long process of decline. [2] Orhan went on to expand his father's empire by conquering the important city of Bursa from the Byzantines early on in his reign. [5]

From their origins as a small Turkish beylik centered around a ghazi society, they expanded to become one of the most powerful empires in early modern history. [5] Both the name of the dynasty and the empire that the dynasty established are derived from the Arabic form (ʿUthmān) of his name. [4] He proclaimed (1290) his independence from his overlord, the Seljuk Turks, upon the collapse of their empire. [2] The Seljuk Turks, a group with origins in Central Asia, had built a powerful Muslim empire throughout Southwest Asia in the decades before, and were now clashing with the mighty Byzantine Empire, which had ruled these lands for centuries. [5]

Nothing is known for certain about Osman's early activities, except that he controlled the region around the town of Söğüt and from there launched raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire. [3] The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν (Atouman) or Ατμάν (Atman), whereas Greek sources regularly render both the Arabic form ʿU th mān and the Turkish version ʿO s mān with θ, τθ, or τσ. [3] Some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish, probably Atman or Ataman, and was only later changed to ʿO s mān, of Arabic origin. [3]

The first datable event in Osman's life is the Battle of Bapheus in 1301 or 1302, in which he defeated a Byzantine force sent to counter him. [3] Of we know nothing with certainty until the Battle of Bapheus, Osman's triumphant confrontation with a Byzantine force in 1301 (or 1302), which is the first datable incident in his life. [3]

According to Shaw, Osman's first real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of Eskişehir and Karacahisar. [3] Motivated to fight against the infidel, these Turkish nomads were attracted to Osman's conquest of the Christian towns and cities. [2]

Enduring for over 600 years, Osman's state had an enormous effect on the course of historical events in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. [2] The surrender of Bursa marked a turning point in the development of Osman's new state. [2]

Due to the scarcity of sources about his life, very little is known about Osman's family relations. [3]

Osman Gazi was only 23 years old when he took the control of Kayi Clan in Sogut and than ascended the throne after the death of his father, ruling for 27 years until his death in 1326. [1] Osman Gazi continued his campaigns against the remaining Byzantine Empire in the area along with his brothers, sons, and close supporters. [1] By the end of the 1300s, the empire had grown to include most of the former Byzantine Empire, with the exception of the city of Constantinople, which would not be conquered until 1453. [5] Situated on the border between the Byzantine and Seljuk empires was a frontier area inhabited by a collection of nomads and city dwellers of many races and religions. [2]

From the middle to the end of the empire, when it was on its long slow decline to collapse, the empire faced three main rival powers that crop up again and again in Ottoman history: to the east, the Persian Safavids to the north, the tsars of Russia and to the west, the Habsburgs. [7] If we were to ask the late Paul Wittek or his followers to explain the rise of the empire, they would tell us that the Ottomans were nomadic warriors solely focused on the conquest of lands and bounty. [9] The Ottoman use of the term ended in 1924 when the empire was replaced by the Republic of Turkey. [8] The Ottomans were aware that when they conquered Constantinople (in essence, the Eastern Roman Empire) the titles of "emperor" and "Caesar" still had importance. [7] Arguably the greatest of all the Ottoman leaders, Süleyman not only extended his empire greatly but he encouraged an era of great cultural wonder. [8]

According to certain fifteenth-century Ottoman writers, Osman was descended from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz Turks, a claim which later became part of the official Ottoman genealogy and was eventually enshrined in the Turkish Nationalist historical tradition with the writings of M. F. Köprülü. [26] Oruç Bey uttered these momentous words which capture the essence of Osman I's second strategy which led the Ottomans to become dominant over Anatolia and later the world. [9] Byzantine leadership was determined to prevent Osman from crossing into Europe and attempted to contain Ottoman expansion westward. [27] Born in 1912, Mr. Osman was the last surviving grandson of an Ottoman emperor his grandfather, Abdul Hamid II, ruled from 1876 to 1909. [28] Ertugrul Osman, Last Grandson of an Ottoman Emperor, Dead at 97 - The New York Times NYTimes.com no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. [28]

The date of Osman's birth is unknown, and very little is known about his early life and origins due to the scarcity of sources and the many myths and legends which came to be told about him by the Ottomans in later centuries. [26] According to later Ottoman tradition, Osman's ancestors were descendants of the Kayı tribe of Oğuz Turks. [26] Ottoman sources often dwell on the prophetic significance of Osman's name, which means "bone-breaker," signifying the powerful energy with which he and his followers showed in the following centuries of conquest. [27]

After the last prince of the family of Alaeddin, to whom Osman's empire was indebted for its foundation in Asia Minor, died, there was no one to compete with Osman for the headship of the Turks of the region and dominion over the whole peninsula, save the Emir of Karamanids. [6] Osman is often referred to as sultan, but this title was not introduced in the empire until 1394. [29] Under the strong and able leadership of Osman, these warriors quickly proved a formidable force, and the foundations of the Empire were quickly laid. [6] Osman himself had gained some advantages over his Karamanli rival but the weak and wealthy possessions of the Byzantine Emperor in northwest Asia Minor were more tempting marks for his ambition than the Karamanoglu plains, and it was over the cities and armies of the ailing Byzantine Empire that the triumphs of the last 26 years of Osman’s life were achieved. [6]

Such a privilege was reserved to devout religious leaders from the time Osman had established his residence in Konya in 1299, before the capital was moved to Bursa and later to Constantinople. [6] One such bey was Osman I, leader of Turkmen nomads, who gave his name to the "Ottoman’ principality, a region which grew vastly during its first few centuries, rising to become a massive world power. [8] According to Aşıkpaşazade, Osman I was illiterate, lending more mystery to the possible rhetoric used by the first sultan. [9] Mr. Osman would have eventually become the Sultan but for the establishment of the Turkish Republic, proclaimed in 1923. [28] The Sword of Osman (Turkish: Taklide-Seif) was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony of the Ottoman Sultans. [26] Poster showing Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty, from Osman I (upper left corner) to Mehmed V (large portrait in the center). [8] Osman Gazi (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان غازى‎ ʿOsmān Ġāzī or Osman Bey orOsman Alp) (died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically asOthman or Ottoman or Atman (from the contemporary Byzantine Greek version of his name, Άτμαν), was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. [26]

Mehmed was able to unify the Ottoman lands under his rule (at the price of his brothers), and received assistance from Byzantine emperor Manuel II in doing so. [8] Ahmed lost the very able grand vizier he’d inherited from Suleyman II in battle, and the Ottomans lost a great deal of land as he was unable to strike out and do much for himself, being influenced by his court. [8]

He ruled through the Balkan Wars, where the Ottomans lost most of their remaining European holdings and opposed entry into World War 1. [8] Mehmed was just twelve when his father abdicated, and ruled in this first phase for just two years until the situation in the Ottoman warzones demanded his father resume control. [8] Having tried to stave off foreign intervention with the first Ottoman constitution in 1876, Abdülhamid decided the west was not the answer as they wanted his land, and he instead scrapped the parliament and the constitution and ruled for forty years as a strict autocrat. [8] Then he captured the first significant city in his territories,Yenişehir, which became the Ottoman capital. [26] This religious tolerance became the hallmark of Ottoman rule for the next 600 years. [27] Although his reign saw a European alliance smash the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto, a new one was ready and active the next year. [8]

The son of Orchan, Murad I oversaw a massive expansion of the Ottoman territories, taking Adrianople, subduing the Byzantines, defeating a crusade and winning victories in Serbia and Bulgaria which forced submission, as well as expanding elsewhere. [8] The war with Austria that had lasted several Sultans came to a peace agreement in Zsitvatörök in 1606, but it was a damaging result for Ottoman pride, allowing European traders deeper into the regime. [8] The Ottoman rulers used the term Sultan for almost their entire dynasty. [8] The influx of Ghazi warriors and adventurers of differing backgrounds into these lands spurred subsequent Ottoman rulers to title themselves "Sultan of Ghazis" (Runciman 1990, p. 32). [27] "Sultan of the Ottomans, Allah’s deputy on earth, Lord of the Lords of this world, Possessor of men’s necks, King of believers and unbelievers, King of Kings, Emperor of the East and the West, Majestic Caesar, Emperor of the Chakans of great authority, Prince and Lord of the most happy constellation, Seal of victory, Refuge of all the people in the whole entire world, the shadow of the almighty dispensing quiet on the Earth." [7] This was the Ottoman equivalent of being anointed and crowned in the west and was a reminder to all of the 36 sultans who followed that their power and status came from this legendary warrior and that they were martial rulers. [7] The most famous of these in the west is the Crimean War, when France and Britain joined sides with the Ottomans to prop up the failing state against the rising star of Russian power. [7] The Ottoman situation in the Balkans began to fray as vassal states united with Austria against Murad, and although he made gains in a war with Iran the finances of the state were decaying. [8]

As the tsars of Russia began to spread their power south towards the Crimean Peninsula and the Black Sea, the Ottomans began to lose ground and were forced to fight multiple wars with the tsars. [7] As Napoleon was now committed to the siege, Ottoman forces were able to gather a relief force and march to the aid of the city. [7] His force of around 2,000 men (later joined by over 2,000 of Napoleon’s men) met the Ottoman relief force at Mount Tabor in Palestine. [7] The idea that a dozen Serbs were able to break through the entire central force of the Ottoman army, which we know held for the whole battle, doesn’t make sense. [7] The struggle continued, with Mehmed dissolving parliament, the nationalists sitting their government in Ankara, Mehmed signing the WW1 peace Treaty of Sevres which basically left the Ottomans as Turkey, and soon the nationalists abolished the sultanate. [8] Ottoman historians often dwell on the prophetic significance of his name, which means "bone-breaker", signifying the powerful energy with which he and his followers appeared to show in the following centuries of conquest. [6] Again, the Ottomans are challenging a major rival, but this time it’s in the east, the Safavid Persians. [7]

The empire was dismantled by the victorious Allied powers of First World War, and a way of life that had lasted from the Middle Ages into the 20th century was gone by 1922, when the last sultan, Mehmed VI, was forced into exile. [7] In the late 13th century a series of small principalities emerged in Anatolia, sandwiched between the Byzantine and Mongol Empires. [8]

Unfortunately for the early empire, these sultans were father and son. [7] The next few titles are little more than showing off, but then we come to "Refuge of all the people in the whole entire world", which shows that the sultans were well aware that their empire was multi-cultural and multi-religious, with Christians, Jews, Muslims and others all living together, not necessarily in harmony, but much better than anywhere else at the time. [7]

There were so many clashes between the two empires that some of the war names sound half-hearted, such as the Long Turkish War (1593-1606). [7] He worked to keep the Great Powers of Europe mostly on his side to better hold the empire together, and they helped him win the Crimean War. [8]

These events almost undid the empire just 100 years into its history. [7]

After the last prince of the family of Ala-ad-Din, to which Osman's family had been indebted for its foundation in Asia Minor, died, there was no other among the various emirs of that country who could compete with Osman for the headship of the whole Turkish population and dominion over the whole peninsula, save the Emir of Karamanogullari. [27] The westward drive of the Mongol invasions had pushed scores of Muslims toward Osman's Anatolian principality, a power base that Osman was quick to consolidate. [27]

The Seljuks had arrived from the Asiatic steppes in the 11th century AD and had been in Anatolia for generations, while Osman had ruled a tiny Anatolian territory at the end of the 13th century and the early 14th century. [7] Further galvanized by the influx of migrants into his territory, Osman also moved eastward and seized Byzantine domains in the Black Sea region of Anatolia. [27] Osman, however, continued to press westward and captured the Byzantine city of Ephesus near the Aegean Sea. [27] In 1301, after soundly defeating a Byzantine force near Nicea, Osman began settling his forces closer to Byzantine-controlled areas. [27]

The name Osman is the Turkish variation of the Muslim name Othman, or Uthman. [6] Because of an editing error, an obituary on Sept. 24 about Ertugrul Osman, a descendant of Turkish royalty, misstated the length of time his second wife, Zeynep, lived with him in a Manhattan apartment and misstated the ownership of 12 dogs that lived there at one time. [28] Osman was 24 at the time of his accession, and had already proven his skills as both a leader and a warrior. [27]

The father of seven sons, Osman I endowed each of his offspring with names representative of the seven separate segments of society namely, Pazarlı (Trader), "oban (Shepherd), Alaeddin, Orhan, Melik, Hamud and Ertuğrul. [9] With his death in Sögüt at the age of 66, Osman was succeed by his son, Orhan. [29] Osman was the son of Ertugrul, and inherited the position of ruler over a principality with Sögüt as capital. [29] For the last 64 years, Mr. Osman -- formally His Imperial Highness Prince Ertugrul Osman -- lived in a rent-controlled apartment in a four-story building on Lexington Avenue in the East 70s. [28] If Osman had been a gazi only good at military issues, he could contend with war booty. [9] Osman won the hearts of people whose lands were conquered with a sword, never regarding the people of those conquered lands as the enemy upon winning the war. [9]

Osman declared the independence of his own small kingdom from the Seljuk Turks in 1299. [27] Osman became chief, or Bey, upon his father’s death in 1281. [6] These men were Christian but in the end became Muslims and were tied to Osman and his family, both in terms of belief and blood. [9]

As for historians, the lands conquered by Osman Gazi became richer and more comfortable compared to the times of Byzantine landlords. [9] The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν (Atouman) or Ατμάν (Atman), whereas Greek sources regularly render both the Arabic form ʿUthmān and the Turkish version ʿOsmān with θ, τθ, or τσ. [26] Some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish, probably Atman or Ataman, and was only later changed to the Arabic ʿOsmān. [26]

Osman's last campaign, before dying of old age, was against the Byzantines in the city of Bursa (Runciman 1990, p. 33). [27] After many years of struggle, he aimed his strategy towards conquering the ancient Seljuk city of Nicaea from the Crusaders, thus accounting for Kutalmışoğlu Süleyman Şah being accepted as Osman's grandfather despite not sharing a family bloodline. [9] According to Shaw, Osman's first real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of Eskişehir andKaracahisar. [26]

Ertuğrul, Osman's father, led his Kayi tribe west into Anatolia, fleeing Mongol belligerence. [27]

Historians such as Aşıkpaşazade, one of the first Ottoman historians, might argue that the economic concept of scarcity value lends itself applicable to history as well, making every piece of information about the life of the first Ottoman sultan Osman Gazi all the more valuable. [9] The first Ottoman sultan conquered an area of land equal to a small Anatolian city (one-third of the modern day Bursa and Bilecik provinces and one-third of the Eskişehir province, as well as a slight amount from the Kocaeli and Sakarya provinces) in his six-year beylic. [9] The Safavids fell first to Afghan invaders in 1736 and, while Persia/Iran would remain an opponent to the late Ottoman sultans, it was never the same expansionist threat it had been earlier under the Safavid dynasty. [7]

The text on the left and lower left of the poster reads: THE SULTANS OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY in Turkish, English, French, Spanish and Italian. [8] The war against Austria that started under Murad III continued, and Mehmed did have some success with victories, sieges, and conquests, but faced rebellions at home due to the declining Ottoman state and a new war with Iran. [8] In keeping with the ideas sweeping Europe at the time, Abdülmecit expanded the reforms of his father to transform the nature of the Ottoman state. [8]

This location was auspicious, as the wealthy Byzantine Empire was weakening to his West, while in the east, Muslim forces under the Seljuk Turks were splintered and distracted in the face of relentless Mongol aggression and internal bickering. [6] When Osman Gazi became the ruler, the Islamic world was in a harsh struggle to re-organize itself under the leadership of gazis against the Mongolian invasion from the east and the Crusades from the west. [9]

According to Ottoman tradition, Osmans father Ertuğrul led the Turkic Kayı tribe west from Central Asia into Anatolia and he then pledged allegiance to the Sultan of the Anatolian Seljuks, who granted him dominion over the town of Söğüt on the Byzantine frontier. [11] Osman's last campaign was against the city of Bursa, although Osman did not physically participate in the battle, the victory at Bursa proved to be extremely vital for the Ottomans as the city served as a staging ground against the Byzantines in Constantinople, and as a newly adorned capital for Osman's son, Orhan. [11]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(31 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Last testament

The Sword of Osman (Turkish: Taklide-Seif ) [9] was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire. [10] The practice started when Osman was girt with the sword of Islam by his mentor and father-in-law Sheik Edebali. [11] The girding of the sword of Osman was a vital ceremony which took place within two weeks of a sultan's accession to the throne. It was held at the tomb complex at Eyüp, on the Golden Horn waterway in the capital Constantinople. The fact that the emblem by which a sultan was enthroned consisted of a sword was highly symbolic: it showed that the office with which he was invested was first and foremost that of a warrior. The Sword of Osman was girded on to the new sultan by the Sharif of Konya, a Mevlevi dervish, who was summoned to Constantinople for that purpose. Such a privilege was reserved to devout religious leaders from the time Osman had established his residence in Konya in 1299, before the capital was moved to Bursa and later to Constantinople. [12]


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