Day 275 October 20, 2011 - History

Day 275 October 20, 2011 - History

Day 275 October 20, 2011

President Barack Obama greets the 2011 Presidential Citizens Medal recipients in the Blue Room of the White House prior to a medal ceremony in the East Room, Oct. 20, 2011. The Citizens Medal, the nation's second-highest civilian honor, recognizes Americans who perform "exemplary deeds of service.

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office


2:00PM THE PRESIDENT makde a statement on the death ofMuammer Qaddafi in the Rose Garden
2:30PM THE PRESIDENT welcomes the 13 recipients of the 2011 Presidential Citizens Medal
East Room

4:10PM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg of Norway
Oval Office


Theme of 2020 Open Access Week to be Open with Purpose: Taking Action to Build Structural Equity and Inclusion

The 2020 Open Access Week Advisory Committee is pleased to announce that the theme for this year’s International Open Access Week, to be held October 19-25, will be “Open with Purpose: Taking Action to Build Structural Equity and Inclusion.”…

Posted by Nick Shockey on August 31, 2020 at 4:16pm

Le thème de la Semaine du libre accès 2020 sera Ouvrir avec intention : renforcer l&rsquoéquité et l&rsquoinclusion de manière structurante

Le Comité consultatif de la Semaine du libre accès 2020 est heureux d’annoncer que le thème de la Semaine internationale du libre accès de cette année, qui se tiendra du 19 au 25 octobre, sera « Ouvrir avec intention : renforcer l’équité et l’inclusion de manière structurante ».

L’ouverture peut être un outil puissant pour…

Posted by Nick Shockey on August 31, 2020 at 4:00pm

የ2020 የግልጽ ተደራሽነት ሳምንት የትኩረት አቅጣጫ &ldquoግልጽነት ከአላማ ጋር፡- መዋቅራዊ እኩልነትንና አካታችነትን ለመገንባት ለተግባር እንነሳ&rdquo የሚል ይሆናል፡፡

በቀጣይ ዓመት ከጥቅምት 9 እስከ ጥቅምት 15 2013 ዓ . ም የሚከበረው የዓለምአቀፍ የግልጽ ተደራሽነት ሳምንት የትኩረት አቅጣጫ፤ “ ግልጽነት ከአላማ ጋር፡ - መዋቅራዊ እኩልነትንና አካታችነትን ለመገንባት ለተግባር እንነሳ” የሚል መሆኑን የ 2020 የግልጽ ተደራሽነት ሳምንት አማካሪ ኮሚቴ…

Posted by Nick Shockey on August 31, 2020 at 4:00pm

2020年オープンアクセス・ウィークのテーマ: 目的を持ってオープン化しよう:構造的な公正 性とインクルージョンを実現するために行動しよう

2020 年オープンアクセス・ウィークのアドバイザリー・コミッティは、 10 月 19 日から 25 日まで 開催される今年の国際オープンアクセス・ウィークのテーマを " 目的を持ってオープン化しよ う:構造的な公正性とインクルージョンを実現するために行動しよう " に決定しました。…

Posted by Nick Shockey on August 31, 2020 at 4:12pm

Международная Неделя Открытого Доступа 2020 будет посвящена справеливости и интеграции.

Международная Неделя Открытого Доступа 2020 будет посвящена справедливости и интеграции. Консультативный комитет Недели Открытого Доступа 2020 года с удовольствием информирует, что темой Недели, которая состоится с 9 по 25 октября, называeтся «Открытость с целью: принятие мер для создания структурной справедливости и интеграции». Открытость может быть использована как мощный инструмент…

Posted by Nick Shockey on August 31, 2020 at 4:09pm

El tema de la Semana de Acceso Abierto 2020 será Abrir con Propósito: Emprender acciones para construir equidad e inclusión estructurales.

El Comité Asesor de la Semana de Acceso Abierto 2020 se complace en anunciar que el tema de este año de la Semana Internacional de Acceso Abierto, a celebrarse del 19 al 25 de octubre, será “Abrir con Propósito: Emprender acciones para construir equidad e inclusión estructurales”.…


October 16th, 2021

Welcome to West Virginia's largest single-day festival! Every third Saturday in October, thousands of people gather on the New River Gorge Bridge in Fayetteville, West Virginia to watch daredevils BASE jump into the Gorge below. You ready?

EVENT SPONSORS

What is bridge day?

Bridge Day is West Virginia's largest single-day festival and one of the largest extreme sports events in the world. Held annually every third Saturday in October on the New River Gorge Bridge in Fayette County, West Virginia, this is the only day each year thousands of spectators can walk across the bridge and watch as serious BASE jumpers get their chance to fly 876 feet into the Gorge below and rappellers ascend and descend from the catwalk. Come and enjoy the view from the bridge, one of the best overlooks in the New River Gorge!

This is Bridge Day, and it's unlike anything you've ever experienced.

Bridge Day stats & Facts

Ever wondered what goes into West Virginia's most exhilarating festival? Check out these stats from 2019, and learn more about the history of Bridge Day below!

Number of BASE jumpers (2019): 303 jumpers from 41 states

Number of jumps made (2019): 790

Number of rappells (2019): 910

Number of spectators (2019): Nearly 100,000!

The New River Gorge Bridge is the world's second-longest single arch bridge and was opened on October 22, 1977.

The first Bridge Day was held on November 8, 1980 when two people parachuted from a plane onto the bridge. 5,500 people walked across the bridge, too.


Day 275 October 20, 2011 - History

  • Adopt a Shelter Dog Month
  • American Cheese Month
  • American Pharmacist Month
  • Apple Jack Month
  • Awareness Month
  • Breast Cancer Awareness Month
  • Clergy Appreciation Month
  • Computer Learning Month
  • Cookie Month
  • Domestic Violence Awareness Month
  • Eat Country Ham Month
  • International Drum Month
  • National Diabetes Month
  • National Pizza Month
  • National Popcorn Poppin' Month
  • National Vegetarian Month
  • National Popcorn Popping Month
  • Sarcastic Month
  • Seafood Month
  • Week 1 Get Organized Week
  • Week 1 Customer Service Week
  • Week 2 Fire Prevention Week
  • Week 2 Pet Peeve Week
  • 14 - 20 Earth Sciences Week
  • Week 3 Pastoral Care Week

World Card Making Day - first Saturday of the month

Oktoberfest in Germany ends, date varies

National Kale Day - first Wednesday of October

Emergency Nurses Day- second Wednesday of month

National Dessert Day - take an extra helping, or two

Bosses Day - Weekday closest to October 16

Make a Difference Day- fourth Saturday of the month, neighbors helping neighbors

Holiday Insights, where everyday is a holiday, a bizarre day, a wacky day ,or a special event. Join us in the fun each and every day of the year.


The Institute for Creation Research

Sometimes we don&rsquot get to see the results of our work or choices soon enough to suit us. But on one occasion, a man&rsquos choice and resulting action were given immediate attention, and the effects of that attention even now rule the universe.

&ldquoAnd when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her and he did eat&rdquo (Genesis 3:6).

The result of Adam&rsquos deliberate sin&mdash&ldquoAdam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression&rdquo (1 Timothy 2:14)&mdashwas immediate and total punishment upon Adam and Eve, and through them on all humanity (Genesis 3:14-19). &ldquoWherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned&rdquo (Romans 5:12). &ldquoFor the creature [or &lsquocreation&rsquo] was made subject to vanity [that is, &lsquofutility&rsquo], not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope&rdquo (8:20).

This &ldquobondage of corruption&rdquo (v. 21) placed upon the entire creation, now known to science as the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is known to all of us as the basic tendency of life. Everything is in the process of death and decay. This law will one day be removed but until then, we, like the groaning, travailing creation of our text, &ldquogroan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body&rdquo (v. 23).

Although we recognize now that &ldquothe wages of sin is death,&rdquo we can be very thankful that the story doesn&rsquot end there, for &ldquothe gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord&rdquo (Romans 6:23). JDM

Days of Praise Podcastis a podcast based on the Institute for Creation Research quarterly print devotional, Days of Praise. Start your day with devotional readings written by Dr. Henry Morris, Dr. Henry Morris III, Dr. John Morris, and others to strengthen and encourage you in your Christian faith.


Day 275 October 20, 2011 - History

As the international community embarks on the Third Decade for the Eradication of Poverty, an estimated 783 million people lived on less than $1.90 a day in 2013, compared with 1.867 billion people in 1990. Economic growth across developing countries has been remarkable since 2000, with faster growth in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita than advanced countries. This economic growth has fuelled poverty reduction and improvements in living standards. Achievements have also been recorded in such areas as job creation, gender equality, education and health care, social protection measures, agriculture and rural development, and climate change adaptation and mitigation. [Resolution A/73/298]

Impact of COVID-19 on Global Poverty

The estimates of the potential short-term economic impact of COVID-19 on global monetary poverty through contractions in per capita household income or consumption show that COVID-19 poses a real challenge to the UN Sustainable Development Goal of ending poverty by 2030 because global poverty could increase for the first time since 1990 and, depending on the poverty line, such increase could represent a reversal of approximately a decade in the world’s progress in reducing poverty. In some regions the adverse impacts could result in poverty levels similar to those recorded 30 years ago. Under the most extreme scenario of a 20 per cent income or consumption contraction, the number of people living in poverty could increase by 420–580 million, relative to the latest official recorded figures for 2018. [WIDER Working Paper 2020/43]

Why do we mark International Days?

International days and weeks are occasions to educate the public on issues of concern, to mobilize political will and resources to address global problems, and to celebrate and reinforce achievements of humanity. The existence of international days predates the establishment of the United Nations, but the UN has embraced them as a powerful advocacy tool. We also mark other UN observances.


Past Earth Overshoot Days

To determine the date of Earth Overshoot Day for each year, Global Footprint Network calculates the number of days of that year that Earth’s biocapacity suffices to provide for humanity’s Ecological Footprint. The remainder of the year corresponds to global overshoot. Earth Overshoot Day is computed by dividing the planet’s biocapacity (the amount of ecological resources Earth is able to generate that year), by humanity’s Ecological Footprint (humanity’s demand for that year), and multiplying by 365, the number of days in a year:

(Planet’s Biocapacity / Humanity’s Ecological Footprint) x 365 = Earth Overshoot Day

Global Ecological Footprint and biocapacity metrics are calculated each year in the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts. Using UN statistics, these accounts incorporate the latest data and the most updated accounting methodology (the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts 2021 Edition feature 2017 data.) To estimate this year’s Earth Overshoot Day, Ecological Footprint and biocapacity are “nowcasted” to the current year using the latest data from additional sources, such as the Global Carbon Project.

To maintain consistency with the latest reported data and science, the Ecological Footprint metrics for all past years since 1961 (the earliest year data is available) are recalculated every year, so each year’s metrics share a common data set and the exact same accounting method. The annual dates of Earth Overshoot Day are recalculated accordingly.

Consequently, it is inaccurate to simply look at media accounts from previous years to determine past Earth Overshoot Days. Indeed, a true apples-to-apples comparison of Earth Overshoot Days can only be made using the same edition of the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts. For instance, it would make no sense to compare the date of Earth Overshoot Day 2007 as it was calculated that year—and reported by the media at the time—with the date of Earth Overshoot Day 2020, because improved historical data and new findings such as lower net carbon sequestration by forests have slightly shifted the results. Even a few percentage points change can shift the date of Earth Overshoot Day by a good number of days.

This is why, ultimately, the precise Earth Overshoot Day date for each year is less significant than the sheer magnitude of the ecological overshoot, as well as the overall trend of the date progression year over year—which, as you now understand, is rigorously identical to that of the Ecological Footprint (given the fact that biocapacity remains basically unchanged.) Over the last decades, the date has been creeping up the calendar every year, although at a slowing rate.

The dates of past Earth Overshoot Days, as calculated with the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts 2021 Edition, are:


National Police Week

Washington, (March 10, 2021) - Host organizations of National Police Week, which include the National Law Enforcement Memorial and Museum, the Fraternal Order of Police and Auxiliary (FOP), and Concerns of Police Survivors (C.O.P.S), have made the difficult but necessary decision, due to the ongoing pandemic, to postpone in-person events of National Police Week to October 13-17, 2021, in Washington, D.C. The rescheduling of the originally planned events to be held May 11-16, 2021, is due to the inability to secure necessary permits in time for in-person gatherings due to the ongoing COVID-19 restrictions.

The National Police Weekend will offer the same honor, remembrance, and peer support as the extended National Police Week, while allowing law enforcement, survivors, and citizens to gather and pay homage to those who gave their lives in the line of duty.

The planned schedule of events includes:
• Thursday, October 14 - NLEOMF Candlelight Vigil
• Friday, October 15 - C.O.P.S. National Police Survivors' Conference
• Saturday, October 16 - FOP 40th Annual National Peace Officers Memorial Service

The three host organizations remain committed to their missions and to honoring the fallen law enforcement heroes from 2019 and 2020, while making sure their survivors are supported. In addition to the in-person events in October, each organization will host virtual events on originally scheduled dates in May 2021. More information on these events are forthcoming.

HISTORY
In 1962, President John F. Kennedy signed a proclamation which designated May 15 as Peace Officers Memorial Day and the week in which that date falls as Police Week. Currently, tens of thousands of law enforcement officers from around the world converge on Washington, DC to participate in a number of planned events which honor those that have paid the ultimate sacrifice.

The Memorial Service began in 1982 as a gathering in Senate Park of approximately 120 survivors and supporters of law enforcement. Decades later, the event, more commonly known as National Police Week, has grown to a series of events which attracts thousands of survivors and law enforcement officers to our Nation's Capital each year.

The National Peace Officers Memorial Service, which is sponsored by the Grand Lodge of the Fraternal Order of Police, is one in a series of events which includes the Candlelight Vigil, which is sponsored by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (NLEOMF) and seminars sponsored by Concerns of Police Survivors (C.O.P.S.)

National Police Week draws in between 25,000 to 40,000 attendees. The attendees come from departments throughout the United States as well as from agencies throughout the world. This provides a unique opportunity to meet others who work in law enforcement. In that spirit, the Fraternal Order of Police DC Lodge #1 sponsors receptions each afternoon and evening during Police Week. These events are open to all law enforcement personnel and are an experience unlike any other.


Ep. Airdate Chaser Surviving Players Bank Final Chase
1 June 29, 2009 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £20,200 18/18 (0:07)
2 June 30, 2009 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £36,000 20/20 (0:02)
3 July 1, 2009 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £12,400 22/22 (0:08)
4 July 2, 2009 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £16,500 20/14
5 July 3, 2009 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £16,000 14/14 (0:24)
6 July 6, 2009 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £12,000 20/19
7 July 7, 2009 Mark Labbett Lazarus £4,000 19/19 (0:05)
8 July 8, 2009 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £22,000 24/22
9 July 9, 2009 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £17,000 17/17 (0:34)
10 July 10, 2009 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £21,000 12/12 (0:47)

Ep. Airdate Chaser Surviving Players Bank Final Chase
1 May 24, 2010 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £16,000 19/19 (0:17)
2 May 25, 2010 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £28,000 23/23 (0:10)
3 May 26, 2010 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £18,000 14/14 (0:35)
4 May 27, 2010 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £19,000 25/23
5 May 28, 2010 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £15,000 21/21 (0:22)
6 May 31, 2010 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £20,500 22/16
7 June 1, 2010 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £31,000 21/21 (0:19)
8 June 2, 2010 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £20,000 22/22 (0:01)
9 June 3, 2010 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £5,200 14/14 (0:33)
10 June 4, 2010 Anne Hegerty 4 contestants £18,400 21/17
11 June 7, 2010 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £22,000 14/14 (0:30)
12 June 8, 2010 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £22,000 26/26 (0:03)
13 June 9, 2010 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £5,000 8/8 (1:27)
14 June 10, 2010 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £22,000 22/21
15 June 11, 2010 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £4,000 15/15 (0:56)
16 June 14, 2010 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £7,000 16/16 (0:37)
17 June 15, 2010 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £14,000 23/23 (0:09)
18 June 16, 2010 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £24,000 18/18 (0:38)
19 June 17, 2010 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £16,000 28/27
20 June 18, 2010 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £38,000 14/14 (0:41)
21 June 21, 2010 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £16,000 18/18 (0:28)
22 June 22, 2010 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £24,000 24/23
23 June 23, 2010 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £7,000 21/21 (0:00)
24 June 24, 2010 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £34,000 24/23
25 June 25, 2010 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £20,000 23/23 (0:22)
26 July 7, 2010 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £31,100 16/16 (0:29)
27 June 30, 2010 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £7,000 21/18
28 June 28, 2010 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £15,000 24/22
29 July 1, 2010 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £8,800 18/18 (0:41)
30 July 2, 2010 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £5,000 15/15 (0:56)
31 July 5, 2010 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £12,000 18/18 (0:12)
32 July 6, 2010 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £40,000 16/16 (0:55)
33 July 14, 2010 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £20,000 20/20 (0:15)
34 July 19, 2010 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £7,000 12/12 (0:57)
35 July 9, 2010 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £40,000 24/19
36 July 12, 2010 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £20,000 22/22 (0:08)
37 July 13, 2010 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £6,000 16/16 (0:44)
38 July 15, 2010 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £17,500 21/21 (0:12)
39 July 16, 2010 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £21,000 19/19 (0:14)
40 July 8, 2010 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £24,000 20/20 (0:23)

Ep. Airdate Chaser Surviving Players Bank Final Chase
1 January 3, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £12,000 20/20 (0:30)
2 January 4, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £12,000 21/21 (0:32)
3 January 5, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £11,000 23/23 (0:13)
4 January 6, 2011 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £19,200 24/23
5 January 7, 2011 Anne Hegerty Lazarus £4,000 19/19 (0:15)
6 January 10, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £17,000 21/21 (0:20)
7 January 11, 2011 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £25,000 19/19 (0:13)
8 January 12, 2011 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £13,000 15/15 (0:41)
9 January 13, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £42.000 25/24
10 January 14, 2011 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £8,000 23/23 (0:16)
11 January 17, 2011 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £24,000 20/19
12 January 18, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £24,003 22/22 (0:15)
13 January 19, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £10,000 21/21 (0:31)
14 January 20, 2011 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £44,000 15/15 (0:54)
15 January 21, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £16,000 18/18 (0:36)
16 January 24, 2011 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £11,100 26/26 (0:09)
17 January 25, 2011 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £2,000 12/12 (1:07)
18 January 26, 2011 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £7,000 18/14
19 January 27, 2011 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £24,000 27/15
20 January 31, 2011 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £24,000 23/23 (0:06)
21 January 28, 2011 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £30,600 19/19 (0:21)
22 February 1, 2011 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £50,400 25/23
23 February 2, 2011 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £20,000 15/15 (0:39)
24 February 3, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £7,000 11/11 (1:01)
25 February 4, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £3,500 15/15 (0:50)
26 February 7, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £17,000 26/24
27 February 8, 2011 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £15,000 15/15 (0:41)
28 February 9, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £9,400 19/19 (0:38)
29 February 10, 2011 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £36,000 23/23 (0:01)
30 February 11, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £11,000 25/25 (0:08)
31 February 14, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £8,000 19/19 (0:02)
32 February 15, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £40,000 25/22
33 February 16, 2011 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £7,000 17/17 (0:18)
34 February 17, 2011 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £16,000 19/19 (0:40)
35 February 18, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £12,000 15/15 (1:00)
36 February 21, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £9,000 17/17 (0:39)
37 February 22, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £34,000 18/18 (0:29)
38 February 23, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £10,000 19/18
39 February 24, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £18,200 18/18 (0:41)
40 February 25, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £14,000 21/21 (0:21)

Ep. Airdate Chaser Surviving Players Bank Final Chase
1 September 5, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £14,000 20/20 (0:30)
2 September 6, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £22,000 22/22 (0:06)
3 September 7, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £10,000 22/9
4 September 8, 2011 Paul Sinha 1 contestant £8,000 20/20 (0:34)
5 September 9, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £12,000 16/16 (0:57)
6 September 12, 2011 Anne Hegerty 4 contestants £20,000 23/23 (0:04)
7 September 13, 2011 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £4,000 15/15 (0:04)
8 September 14, 2011 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £3,000 13/13 (0:34)
9 September 15, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £40,000 22/20
10 September 16, 2011 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £13,000 18/18 (0:07)
11 September 19, 2011 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £45,000 23/23 (0:09)
12 September 20, 2011 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £16,400 19/19 (0:10)
13 September 21, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £5,200 18/18 (0:38)
14 September 22, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £10,000 16/16 (0:45)
15 September 23, 2011 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £10,000 18/15
16 September 26, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £8,000 15/15 (0:29)
17 September 27, 2011 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £17,000 18/18 (0:23)
18 September 28, 2011 Anne Hegerty 4 contestants £20,000 22/22 (0:07)
19 September 29, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £14,300 26/21
20 September 30, 2011 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £17,000 14/14 (0:52)
21 October 3, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £16,000 19/19 (0:33)
22 October 4, 2011 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £22,000 23/20
23 October 5, 2011 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £20,000 22/22 (0:32)
24 October 6, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £9,000 16/16 (0:02)
25 October 7, 2011 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £16,000 19/19 (0:11)
26 October 10, 2011 Paul Sinha Lazarus £4,000 15/15 (0:23)
27 October 11, 2011 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £50,000 22/14
28 October 12, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £8,000 11/11 (1:17)
29 October 13, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £15,000 18/18 (0:22)
30 October 14, 2011 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £19,000 23/23 (0:12)
31 October 17, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £41,000 21/18
32 October 18, 2011 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £10,000 21/21 (0:27)
33 October 19, 2011 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £5,000 13/13 (0:56)
34 October 20, 2011 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £41,000 18/18 (0:10)
35 October 21, 2011 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £24,000 26/18
36 October 24, 2011 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £8,000 13/13 (0:02)
37 October 25, 2011 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £16,500 20/20 (0:07)
38 October 26, 2011 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £14,000 20/15
39 October 27, 2011 Mark Labbbett 1 contestant £1,000 12/12 (0:58)
40 October 28, 2011 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £4,000 11/11 (1:13)
41 January 3, 2012 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £7,000 13/13 (0:19)
42 January 4, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £70,000 16/16 (0:46)
43 January 5, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £18,000 22/15
44 January 6, 2012 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £13,400 20/20 (0:06)
45 January 9, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £22,000 19/19 (0:30)
46 January 10, 2012 Paul Sinha Lazarus £4,000 17/17 (0:45)
47 January 11, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £15,000 25/22
48 January 12, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £13,000 15/15 (0:25)
49 January 13, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £34,000 17/15
50 January 16, 2012 Paul Sinha 1 contestant £5,000 18/18 (0:34)
51 January 17, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £9,000 11/11 (0:55)
52 January 18, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £16,000 19/18
53 January 19, 2012 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £25,000 19/19 (0:26)
54 January 20, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £10,000 17/17 (0:24)
55 January 23, 2012 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £5,000 12/12 (1:16)
56 January 24, 2012 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £8,000 19/18
57 January 25, 2012 Anne Hegerty 4 contestants £19,000 20/20 (0:15)
58 January 26, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £15,000 14/14 (0:33)
59 January 27, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £11,000 21/17
60 January 30, 2012 Anne Hegerty 4 contestants £22,300 16/16 (0:15)

Ep. Airdate Chaser Surviving Players Bank Final Chase
1 January 31, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £20,000 20/20 (0:25)
2 February 1, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £22,000 20/20 (0:02)
3 February 2, 2012 Paul Sinha 1 contestant £40,000 19/19 (0:16)
4 February 3, 2012 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £47,000 22/21
5 February 6, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £10,000 16/16 (0:26)
6 February 7, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £5,000 13/13 (0:53)
7 February 8, 2012 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £50,000 20/20 (0:18)
8 February 9, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £17,000 18/17
9 February 10, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £31,000 16/16 (0:01)
10 March 21, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £16,001 24/24 (0:05)
11 February 21, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £50,000 21/19
12 February 22, 2012 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £27,000 20/20 (0:08)
13 February 23, 2012 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £63,000 22/22 (0:30)
14 February 24, 2012 Anne Hegerty Lazarus £4,000 15/15 (0:16)
15 February 27, 2012 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £29,000 17/17 (0:28)
16 February 28, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £9,000 23/20
17 February 29, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £21,000 21/21 (0:05)
18 April 10, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £17,000 19/19 (0:34)
19 March 2, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £10,000 19/19 (0:13)
20 March 5, 2012 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £6,000 21/21 (0:36)
21 March 6, 2012 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £50,000 21/20
22 March 7, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £16,000 22/22 (0:16)
23 March 8, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £9,000 15/15 (0:33)
24 March 9, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £26,000 20/18
25 March 12, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £11,000 19/19 (0:14)
26 March 13, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £42,000 23/23 (0:01)
27 March 14, 2012 Mark Labbett Lazarus £4,000 18/18 (0:08)
28 March 15, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £15,000 19/19 (0:18)
29 March 16, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £15,000 20/20 (0:04)
30 April 30, 2012 Mark Labbett 4 contestants £19,000 20/20 (0:11)
31 March 20, 2012 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £28,000 28/27
32 February 20, 2012 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £5,000 16/16 (0:25)
33 March 22, 2012 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £9,000 15/15 (0:13)
34 March 23, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £15,000 19/19 (0:25)
35 March 26, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £8,000 21/21 (0:12)
36 March 27, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £20,000 21/21 (0:06)
37 March 28, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £11,000 17/14
38 March 29, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £10,000 17/17 (0:37)
39 March 30, 2012 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £4,000 17/17 (0:17)
40 April 9, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £9,000 18/18 (0:26)
41 March 1, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £11,000 19/19 (0:11)
42 April 11, 2012 Paul Sinha 1 contestant £4,000 14/14 (0:58)
43 April 12, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £25,000 19/14
44 April 13, 2012 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £30,000 12/12 (1:07)
45 April 16, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £12,000 15/14
46 May 31, 2012 Shaun Wallace 1 contestant £8,000 14/14 (0:38)
47 April 18, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £11,000 16/16 (0:36)
48 April 19, 2012 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £28,000 21/21 (0:07)
49 April 20, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £39,000 26/24
50 April 23, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £21,000 20/20 (0:06)
51 April 24, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £16,000 19/19 (0:10)
52 April 25, 2012 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £7,000 12/12 (1:13)
53 April 26, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £11,000 23/21
54 April 27, 2012 Anne Hegerty 4 contestants £20,000 20/20 (0:11)
55 March 19, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £7,000 21/16
56 May 1, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £12,000 15/13
57 May 2, 2012 Paul Sinha 1 contestant £7,000 18/18 (0:48)
58 May 3, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £38,000 18/18 (0:03)
59 May 4, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £40,000 19/19 (0:22)
60 May 7, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £40,000 19/19 (0:36)
61 May 8, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £12,999 15/15 (0:46)
62 May 9, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £14,000 20/17
63 May 10, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £47,000 24/24 (0:25)
64 May 11, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £15,000 21/21 (0:21)
65 May 14, 2012 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £21,000 16/16 (0:13)
66 May 15, 2012 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £4,000 15/15 (0:26)
67 May 16, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £16,000 24/21
68 May 17, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £11,000 20/16
69 May 18, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £15,000 20/20 (0:36)
70 May 21, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £12,000 16/16 (0:50)
71 May 22, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £9,000 15/15 (1:02)
72 May 23, 2012 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £6,000 15/15 (0:30)
73 May 24, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £12,000 17/16
74 May 25, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £45,000 20/20 (0:24)
75 May 28, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £33,000 17/17 (0:32)
76 May 29, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £8,000 17/17 (0:21)
77 May 30, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £15,000 20/18
78 April 17, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £16,000 20/20 (0:06)
79 June 1, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £18,000 16/16 (0:38)
80 September 3, 2012 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £5,000 12/12 (1:10)
81 September 4, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £13,000 21/21 (0:17)
82 September 5, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £10,000 19/19 (0:04)
83 September 6, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £31,000 23/18
84 September 7, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £16,000 21/21 (0:06)
85 September 10, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £12,000 18/18 (0:12)
86 September 11, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £8,000 21/18
87 September 12, 2012 Anne Hegerty Lazarus £4,000 12/12 (0:20)
88 September 13, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £45,000 23/21
89 September 14, 2012 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £36,000 19/19 (0:14)
90 September 17, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £12,000 18/15
91 September 18, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £5,000 10/10 (1:22)
92 September 19, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £13,000 15/15 (0:41)
93 September 20, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £8,000 20/20 (0:05)
94 September 21, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £50,000 18/18 (0:31)
95 September 24, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £12,000 17/17 (0:24)
96 September 25, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £12,000 21/16
97 September 26, 2012 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £7,000 17/17 (0:46)
98 September 27, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £32,000 17/17 (0:54)
99 September 28, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £4,000 16/16 (0:26)
100 October 1, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £19,000 18/18 (0:20)
101 October 2, 2012 Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £8,000 22/17
102 October 3, 2012 Shaun Wallace 3 contestants £3,000 19/19 (0:14)
103 October 4, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £13,000 19/19 (0:34)
104 October 25, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £11,000 14/8
105 October 8, 2012 Paul Sinha 3 contestants £!1,000 17/17 (0:14)
106 October 9, 2012 Shaun Wallace 2 contestants £11,000 20/19
107 October 10, 2012 Anne Hegerty 1 contestant £30,000 18/18 (0:27)
108 October 11, 2012 Paul Sinha 4 contestants £16,000 19/17
109 October 12, 2012 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £4,000 12/12 (0:52)
110 October 15, 2012 Shaun Wallace Lazarus £4,000 13/13 (1:09)
111 October 16, 2012 Anne Hegerty 4 contestants £20,000 23/22
112 October 24, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £5,000 16/16 (0:15)
113 October 18, 2012 Shaun Wallace 4 contestants £31,000 25/18
114 October 19, 2012 Paul Sinha 2 contestants £6,300 17/17 (0:07)
115 October 22, 2012 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £4,000 17/13
116 October 23, 2012 Anne Hegerty 3 contestants £13,000 16/16 (0:21)
117 March 30, 2013 Mark Labbett 2 contestants £30,000 15/15 (0:49)
118 October 5, 2012 Mark Labbett 1 contestant £5,000 20/19
119 Never aired*² Anne Hegerty 2 contestants £14,000 15/12
120 October 26, 2012 Mark Labbett 3 contestants £17,000 19/19 (0:36)

*² Never aired for an unknown reason.

Episode Airdate Chaser P1 P2 Surving Players Bank Final Chase
1 29/10/2012 Mark Labbett £7,000 £7,000 2 14,000 22/18
2 30/10/2012 Paul Sinha - £30,000 3 37,000 17/17 (0:02)
3 31/10/2012 Anne Hegerty £5,000 £7,000 3 19,000 18/18 (0:24)
4 1/11/2012 Shaun Wallace £5,000 - 2 40,000 17/11
5 2/11/2012 Mark Labbett £5,000 - 1 5,000 15/15 (0:57)
6 5/11/2012 Anne Hegerty £7,000 £500 - £37,500 17/17 (0:28)
7 6/11/2012 Shaun Wallace - - £7,000 £5,000 18/18 (0:12)
8 7/11/2012 Mark Labbett - £2,000 - - 10/10 (1:16)
9 9/11/2012 Shaun Wallace - £1,000 £1,000 £7,000 18/18 (0:13)
10 8/11/2012 Paul Sinha - - £1,000 £1,000 15/15 (0:40)
11 12/11/2012 Mark Labbett £30,000 - £4,000 - 14/14 (1:01)`
12 13/11/2012 Anne Hegerty £6,000 £9,000 - - 16/16 (0:18)
13 14/11/2012 Shaun Wallace - £8,000 £7,000 - 19/19 (0:07
14 15/11/2012 Mark Labbett £7,000 £7,000 - £7,000 21/18
15 16/11/2012 Paul Sinha £20,000 - - - 14/14 (0:19)
16 19/11/2012 Anne Hegerty £6,000 - £5,000 £34,000 18/18 (0:36)
17 21/11/2012 Paul Sinha £6,000 - £1,000 - 16/16 (0:19)
18 20/11/2012 Mark Labbett £7,000 £5,000 - £ 1 19/17
19 22/11/2012 Shaun Wallace - £7,000 - £3,000 20/15
20 23/11/2012 Mark Labbett - - - - 9/9 (1:14)
21 26/11/2012 Paul Sinha £4,000 £25,000 - £3,000 17/17 (0:23)
22 27/11/2012 Anne Hegerty - £5,000 - £7,000 18/18 (0:45)
23 28/11/2012 Shaun Wallace £7,000 - £6,000 - 15/15 (0:45)
24 30/11/2012 Mark Labbett - - £6,000 - 7/7 (1:33)
25 29/11/2012 Anne Hegerty £5,000 - £4,000 £5,000 19/16
26 3/12/2012 Shaun Wallace - - - £35,000 18/18 (0:12)
27 4/12/2012 Anne Hegerty £5,000 - - - 12/12 (1:05)
28 5/12/2012 Paul Sinha £6,000 £8,000 £2,000 £7,000 20/19
29 6/12/2012 Mark Labbett - £6,000 - £ 200 22/22 (0:01)
30 7/12/2012 Anne Hegerty £5,000 - £1,000 - 16/16 (0:22)
31 10/12/2012 Shaun Wallace £40,000 £4,000 £3,000 - 18/18 (0:26)
32 12/12/2012 Paul Sinha - £25,000 £4,000 -£2,000 14/14 (0:55)
33 11/12/2012 Mark Labbett £4,000 £6,000 £7,000 £5,000 23/15
34 13/12/2012 Anne Hegerty - £4,000 - £10,000 20/20 (0:23)
35 14/12/2012 Shaun Wallace - £5,000 - - 14/11
36 17/12/2012 Paul Sinha £3,000 £5,000 - - 16/16 (0:44)
37 18/12/2012 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £5,000 £3,000 - 20/19
38 19/12/2012 Shaun Wallace £4,000 - £6,000 -£1,000 15/15 (0:46)
39 20/12/2012 Mark Labbett £6,000 - £6,000 -£3,000 17/17 (0:17)
40 7/2/2013 Paul Sinha - - - - 16/15*³
41 22/2/2013 Anne Hegerty - - - - 14/14 (0:48)
42 3/1/2013 Anne Hegerty - - - - 14/14 (0:22)
43 4/1/2013 Mark Labbett £6,000 £4,000 £5,000 - 20/16
44 7/1/2013 Shaun Wallace - £5,000 £7,000 - 19/19 (0:11)
45 8/1/2013 Mark Labbett - - - £60,000 15/14
46 9/1/2013 Anne Hegerty £7,000 £3,000 £10,000 - 22/22 (0:14)
47 10/1/2013 Shaun Wallace - £8,000 - £1,000 13/13 (0:16)
48 11/1/2013 Paul Sinha £8,000 £6,000 - - 15/15 (0:04)
49 14/1/2013 Paul Sinha £5,000 - - £3,000 14/14 (0:50)
50 15/1/2013 Anne Hegerty - - £35,000 - 11/11 (1:14)
51 16/1/2013 Shaun Wallace £7,000 - £5,000 £10,000 22/15
52 17/1/2013 Paul Sinha £4,000 £8,000 - £5,000 16/16 (0:39)
53 18/1/2013 Mark Labbett - - £4,000 £6,000 15/15 (0:55)
54 21/1/2013 Anne Hegerty £5,000 £6,000 - £3,000 15/15 (0:43)
55 22/1/2013 Shaun Wallace £1,000 - - £1,000 19/19 (0:15)
56 23/1/2013 Mark Labbett - £30,000 - - 14/14 (0:26)
57 24/1/2013 Anne Hegerty £7,000 £40,000 -£5,000 - 18/17
58 25/1/2013 Paul Sinha - - £3,000 - 11/11 (0:59)
59 28/1/2013 Mark Labbett - £4,000 £6,000 £4,000 21/21 (0:11)
60 29/1/2013 Shaun Wallace £25,000 £2,000 - -£2,000 17/13
61 30/1/2013 Paul Sinha - - £2,000 - 12/12 (0:41)
62 31/1/2013 Anne Hegerty - - £4,000 £50,000 17/17 (0:31)
63 1/2/2013 Shaun Wallace - £5,000 £200 - 15/15 (0:28)
64 4/2/2013 Paul Sinha £2,000 £5,000 - - 15/15 (0:20)
65 5/2/2013 Mark Labbett £4,000 £6,000 - - 12/12 (0:51)
66 6/2/2013 Shaun Wallace - £7,000 - £6,000 15/15 (0:19)
68 8/2/2013 Anne Hegerty £20,000 - - - 16/16 (0:31)
69 18/2/2013 Mark Labbett £1,000 - - - 17/17 (0:05)
70 19/2/2013 Shaun Wallace £3,000 - £1,000 - 13/13 (0:40)
71 20/2/2013 Anne Hegerty - £5,000 - £55,000 18/17
72 .
73 21/2/2013 Paul Sinha - £7,000 - £3,000 13/13 (0:49)
74 25/2/2013 Shaun Wallace £4,000 £5,000 - £5,000 24/20
75 26/2/2013 Mark Labbett - - - £6,000 11/11 (1:03)
76 27/2/2013 Paul Sinha - £5,000 £ 400 - 16/16 (0:20)
77 28/2/2013 Mark Labbett - £6,000 - £6,000 17/16
78 10/5/2013 Anne Hegerty - - - - 17/17 (0:34)
79 4/3/2013 Anne Hegerty £4,000 £9,000 - £4,000 16/16 (0:28)
80 5/3/2013 Shaun Wallace £5,000 - - - 16/11
81 6/3/2013 Mark Labbett £3,000 - - £2,000 11/11 (0:42)
82 7/3/2013 Paul Sinha - £5,000 - - 11/11 (1:03)
83 11/3/2013 Shaun Wallace - £24,000 - - 11/11 (0:34)
84 12/3/2013 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £4,000 - - 13/13 (0:40)
85 13/3/2013 Paul Sinha - - £2,000 £6,000 21/16
86 14/3/2013 Mark Labbett £3,000 £2,000 £40,000 -£3,000 21/14
87 15/3/2013 Paul Sinha £30,000 - - £ 1 20/20 (0:06)
88 18/3/2013 Anne Hegerty £4,000 - - £5,000 18/16
89 19/3/2013 Mark Labbett - £ 500 - £40,000 15/15 (0:52)
90 20/3/2013 Paul Sinha £3,000 £6,000 - £1,000 17/17 (0:37)
91 21/3/2013 Shaun Wallace £4,000 - £5,000 £4,000 20/18
92 22/3/2013 Anne Hegerty £6,000 £4,000 - £35,000 14/14 (0:42)
93 8/4/2013 Mark Labbett - £5,000 - £35,000 14/14 (0:03)
94 9/4/2013 Paul Sinha - £9,000 £ 500 - 19/19 (0:34)
95 11/4/2013 Mark Labbett £6,000 £1,000 £3,000 £7,000 20/15
96 12/4/2013 Shaun Wallace £3,000 - £2,000 £7,000 17/17 (0:06)
97 15/4/2013 Paul Sinha - - - - 19/18
98 16/4/2013 Shaun Wallace - £4,000 £ 100 £6,000 17/17 (0:12)
99 17/4/2013 Mark Labbett - £6,000 £3,000 £ 600 17/17 (0:15)
100 18/4/2013 Shaun Wallace - £6,000 £1,000 - 18/15
101 19/4/2013 Anne Hegerty - £30,000 - -£3,000 15/15 (0:54)
102 22/4/2013 Paul Sinha £7,000 £4,000 - £40,000 22/22 (0:00)
103 23/4/2013 Mark Labbett - £6,000 - £2,000 21/20
104 24/4/2013 Anne Hegerty - - £1,000 - 10/10 (1:03)
105 25/4/2013 Paul Sinha - £7,000 -£1,000 £10,000 22/17
106 26/4/2013 Shaun Wallace - £8,000 - - 15/15 (0:21)
107 29/4/2013 Shaun Wallace £7,000 £8,000 - - 19/17
108 30/4/2013 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £7,000 - - 17/17 (0:16)
109 1/5/2013 Mark Labbett - - - £4,000 11/11 (0:58)
110 8/3/2013 Shaun Wallace - £8,000 £5,000 £4,000 12/12 (0:10)
111 6/5/2013 Mark Labbett - £6,000 £2,000 £5,000 17/17 (0:04)
112 7/5/2013 Paul Sinha £8,000 - - - 11/11 (0:50)
113 8/5/2013 Mark Labbett £5,000 £4,000 - - 21/16
114 9/5/2013 Shaun Wallace £3,000 £4,000 - - 16/16 (0:31)
115 1/3/2013 Anne Hegerty £4,000 £28,000 £2,000 -£2,000 21/21 (0:07)
116 13/5/2013 Shaun Wallace £7,000 - - - 10/10 (1:02)
117 14/5/2013 Anne Hegerty - - - £40,000 14/14 (0:15)
118 10/4/2013 Anne Hegerty - - - - 11/11 (0:54)
119 16/5/2013 Shaun Wallace £6,000 £3,000 -£3,000 - 21/7
120 17/5/2013 Mark Labbett £2,000 £4,000 £1,000 £6,000 19/19 (0:09)
121 20/5/2013 Anne Hegerty £6,000 £25,000 -£3,000 - 18/18 (0:30)
122 21/5/2013 Paul Sinha £6,000 £8,000 - - 17/16
123 21/11/2014 Shaun Wallace - £7,000 - £3,000 17/17 (0:30)
124 23/5/2013 Paul Sinha £3,000 £7,000 - - 18/18 (0:02)
125 24/5/2013 Mark Labbett £6,000 - - £ 500 16/16 (0:35)
126 3/6/2013 Shaun Wallace £3,000 £8,000 - £5,000 17/16
127 4/6/2013 Paul Sinha - - £1,000 £6,000 18/18 (0:07)
128 5/6/2013 Mark Labbett - - £2,000 £6,000 17/17 (0:15)
129 7/6/2013 Paul Sinha - £3,000 - £5,000 15/15 (0:40)
130 10/6/2013 Paul Sinha £6,000 - £6,000 £6,000 17/15
131 11/6/2013 Anne Hegerty - - - - 18/18 (0:33)
132 12/6/2013 Paul Sinha - £8,000 - -£1,000 15/12
133 13/6/2013 Mark Labbett £5,000 £25,000 £5,000 - 19/19 (0:27)
134 14/6/2013 Shaun Wallace £4,000 - £7,000 £2,000 13/13 (0:23)
135 3/5/2013 Paul Sinha £3,000 £30,000 £6,000 -£3,000 22/22 (0:11)
136 18/6/2013 Anne Hegerty £8,000 - - £ 400 17/17 (0:17)
137 19/6/2013 Mark Labbett £5,000 - £7,000 £2,000 20/18
138 20/6/2013 Paul Sinha - £6,000 £7,000 £4,000 18/18 (0:15)
139 21/6/2013 Shaun Wallace - £7,000 - - 17/14
140 15/5/2013 Paul Sinha - - £6,000 £2,000 14/14 (0:21)
141 25/6/2013 Anne Hegerty £25,000 £9,000 £7,000 - 12/12 (0:48)
142 22/5/2013 Shaun Wallace - - £1,000 - 13/13 (0:45)
143 17/6/2013 Mark Labbett - £6,000 - £54,000 17/17 (0:24)
144 6/6/2013 Anne Hegerty - - £8,000 £5,000 18/14
145 2/1/2013 Paul Sinha £25,000 £2,000 £7,000 £5,000 23/21
146 2/5/2013 Anne Hegerty - £8,000 £1,000 - 17/17 (0:14)
147 24/6/2013 Mark Labbett £8,000 £6,000 -£2,000 £38,000 16/13
148 25/6/2013 Paul Sinha £5,000 £7,000 - - 16/16 (0:03)
149 26/6/2013 Shaun Wallace £1,000 £30,000 - - 17/17 (0:21)
150 27/6/2013 Anne Hegerty £4,000 £3,000 £5,000 - 18/18 (0:12)

The episode that aired on 21 December 2012 featured Lorraine Kelly , Craig Charles , Jamelia and Dom Joly , who all played for Text Santa . [1] This episode featured all four chasers. Each celebrity picked out a Christmas bauble from a bag that determined which chaser they would face. Kelly picked out Mark, Charles picked out Anne, Jamelia picked out Paul, and Joly was left with Shaun. For the Final Chase, Walsh asked the remaining celebrities (Kelly and Jamelia) which Chaser they wanted to play against. The celebrities picked Mark, who failed to catch them, which meant that they won the £11,000 prize money that they brought through to the Final Chase. As it was played for Text Santa , the £11,000 prize money was doubled to £22,000.

Episode Airdate Chaser P1 P2 P3 P4 Final Chase
1 September 1, 2014 Anne Hegerty £6,000 £6,000 £4,000 £6,000 20/19
2 September 2, 2014 Mark Labbett - £6,000 - - 13/13 (0:19)
3 September 3, 2014 Shaun Wallace £5,000 £5,000 £6,000 £8,000 19/19 (0:10)
4 September 5, 2014 Anne Hegerty £5,000 £35,000 £6,000 £7,000 18/18 (0:24)
5 September 4, 2014 Paul Sinha - - - £50,000 18/16
6 September 8, 2014 Paul Sinha £9,000 £6,000 £6,000 £4,000 16/16 (0:21)
7 September 9, 2014 Anne Hegerty £2,000 £5,000 £6,000 £47,000 16/16 (0:36)
8 September 10, 2014 Mark Labbett £2,000 £6,000 £500 £6,000 24/14
9 September 11, 2014 Shaun Wallace - £6,000 - £4,000 16/16 (0:44)
10 September 12, 2014 Mark Labbett £7,000 - - £6,000 17/17 (0:11)
11 September 15, 2014 Shaun Wallace - £6,000 - - 15/15 (0:19)
12 September 16, 2014 Mark Labbett £6,000 - - - 20/20 (0:01)
13 September 17, 2014 Anne Hegerty - - £3,000 £5,000 14/14 (0:46)
14 September 18, 2014 Shaun Wallace £8,000 £5,000 £4,000 - 19/15
15 September 19, 2014 Paul Sinha - £3,000 £3,000 £2,000 17/17 (0:05)
16 September 22, 2014 Mark Labbett - £4,000 - - 15/15 (0:30)
17 September 23, 2014 Paul Sinha £3,000 £6,000 £6,000 £4,000 20/19
18 September 24, 2014 Shaun Wallace £5,000 - - £35,000 11/11 (0:00)
19 September 25, 2014 Anne Hegerty £8,000 £4,000 £1,000 - £ 1000 19/16
20 September 26, 2014 Paul Sinha £5,000 - £4,000 £5,000 15/15 (0:43)
21 September 29, 2014 Anne Hegerty £28,000 £6,000 - £1,000 16/16 (0:32)
22 September 30, 2014 Paul Sinha £1,000 - £3,000 £4,000 16/16 (0:46)
23 October 1, 2014 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £30,000 - - 17/16
24 October 2, 2014 Shaun Wallace - - - £5,000 12/12 (0:51)
25 October 3, 2014 Mark Labbett - £3,000 - - 13/13 (0:44)
26 October 6, 2014 Shaun Wallace £4,000 - £1,000 - 15/15 (0:03)
27 October 7, 2014 Mark Labbett - - £3,000 - 9/9 (1:06)
28 October 8, 2014 Anne Hegety £6,000 £30,000 - - 15/15 (0:21)
29 October 14, 2014 Mark Labbett £7,000 - £5,000 - £ 2000 19/15
30 October 10, 2014 Paul Sinha £7,000 £7,000 - £3,000 16/16 (0:26)
31 October 13, 2014 Paul Sinha £4,000 £6,000 - - 18/18 (0:15)
32 October 9, 2014 Shaun Wallace - £4,000 £9,000 - £ 1000 19/17
33 October 16, 2014 Mark Labbett £2,000 £8,000 £3,000 - 18/18 (0:24)
34 October 15, 2014 Anne Hegerty £3,000 - £5,000 - 13/13 (1:01)
35 October 17, 2014 Shaun Wallace £6,000 £36,000 - - £ 6000 13/13 (0:56)
36 January 19, 2015 Mark Labbett £5,000 £5,000 - £ 1000 - 12/12 (0:26)
37 January 20, 2015 Shaun Wallace - £5,000 £3,000 - 18/15
38 January 21, 2015 Paul Sinha £5,000 - £8,000 £5,000 21/19
39 January 22, 2015 Anne Hegerty - - £1,000 - 8/8 (0:58)
40 January 23, 2015 Paul Sinha £5,000 - - £5,000 15/15 (0:50)
41 November 7, 2014 Paul Sinha £2,000 £5,000 - - 18/18 (0:09)
42 November 18, 2014 Paul Sinha - £8,000 - - 18/18 (0:04)
43 June 2, 2015 Mark Labbett - £7,000 £1,000 - 14/14 (1:00)
44 November 20, 2014 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £10,000 - £ 1000 £5,000 24/13
45 March 2, 2015 Shaun Wallace £4,000 £6,000 - - 15/15 (0:26)
46 November 24, 2014 Shaun Wallace - £7,000 £3,000 - 10/10 (0:18)
47 November 25, 2014 Anne Hegerty - - £5,000 £7,000 13/13 (0:42)
48 November 26, 2014 Shaun Wallace £5,000 - £7,000 - 15/12
49 November 27, 2014 Mark Labbett £5,000 £7,000 £4,000 £7,000 18/18 (0:03)
50 November 28, 2014 Paul Sinha £4,000 £25,000 £3,000 £6,000 23/22
51 December 1, 2014 Anne Hegerty £7,000 £5,000 - - 14/14 (0:14)
52 December 2, 2014 Mark Labbett £7,000 £7,000 - £6,000 19/12
53 December 3, 2014 Shaun Wallace £5,000 - £6,000 - 14/14 (0:40)
54 December 4, 2014 Paul Sinha £6,000 - £2,000 £8,000 18/18 (0:26)
55 December 5, 2014 Mark Labbett - - £6,000 £1,000 15/15 (0:43)
56 December 8, 2014 Paul Sinha £4,000 £24,000 - - 14/14 (0:11)
57 December 9, 2014 Anne Hegerty - - - £50,000 18/18 (0:01)
58 December 10, 2014 Mark Labbett £5,000 - £3,000 £2,000 12/12 (0:58)
59 December 11, 2014 Paul Sinha £5,000 - £3,000 £6,000 16/15
60 December 12, 2014 Shaun Wallace £3,000 £4,000 - £6,000 13/13 (0:45)
61 December 15, 2014 Mark Labbett £4,000 - £3,000 £5,000 20/20 (0:06)
62 December 16, 2014 Anne Hegerty £6,000 £5,000 £7,000 £4,000 21/19
63 December 17, 2014 Paul Sinha - £7,000 - £5,000 19/19 (0:25)
64 December 18, 2014 Shaun Wallace - - - £40,000 13/13 (0:33)
65 January 5, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £6,000 £300 - 15/15 (0:25)
66 January 6, 2015 Shaun Wallace £6,000 - £3,000 - 11/11 (0:51)
67 January 7, 2015 Mark Labbett - £24,000 -£1,000 £7,000 16/16 (0:36)
68 January 8, 2015 Shaun Wallace £7,000 - £33,000 - 15/11
69 January 9, 2015 Paul Sinha £7,000 £7,000 - - 16/16 (0:11)
70 January 12, 2015 Shaun Wallace £6,000 £4,000 - - 14/14 (0:34)
71 January 13, 2015 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £6,000 £100 - 17/13
72 January 14, 2015 Mark Labbett - - £6,000 - 10/10 (1:14)
73 January 15, 2015 Paul Sinha - £7,000 £500 £7,000 16/16 (0:22)
74 January 16, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £8,000 £48,000 -£11,000 18/18 (0:17)
75 January 26, 2015 Shaun Wallace - - £1,000 £7,000 11/11 (0:35)
76 January 27, 2015 Paul Sinha £8,000 £6,000 £5,000 - 17/17 (0:11)
77 January 28, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £8,000 £4,000 - 15/15 (0:12)
78 January 29, 2015 Shaun Wallace £7,000 £9,000 £2,000 - 18/12
79 January 30, 2015 Mark Labbett £5,000 £6,000 - - 12/12 (0:34)
80 February 2, 2015 Shaun Wallace £3,000 - - - 10/10 (0:51)
81 February 3, 2015 Anne Hegerty £6,000 - £3,000 £7,000 20/8
82 February 4, 2015 Mark Labbett £3,000 £6,000 - - 9/9 (0:53)
83 December 19, 2014 Paul Sinha £3,000 £6,000 £1,000 £5,000 21/17
84 February 6, 2015 Anne Hegerty £5,000 £3,000 £1 £7,000 21/21 (0:02)
85 February 9, 2015 Mark Labbett - £5,000 - £45,000 14/14 (0:20)
86 February 10, 2015 Shaun Wallace £18,000 - - -£4,000 10/10 (0:41)
87 February 11, 2015 Mark Labbett - £6,000 £2 £1,000 19/16
88 February 12, 2015 Anne Hegerty £4,000 £40,000 £4,000 - 16/16 (0:04)
89 February 13, 2015 Paul Sinha - - £1,000 - 14/14 (0:43)
90 February 23, 2015 Anne Hegerty £4,000 £5,000 -£1,000 £7,000 21/21 (0:01)
91 February 24, 2015 Paul Sinha £4,000 £6,000 £4,000 £4,000 20/17
92 February 25, 2015 Mark Labbett - - £1,000 £59,000 16/16 (0:34)
93 February 26, 2015 Shaun Wallace - - £1,000 - 12/12 (0:14)
94 February 27, 2015 Mark Labbett £4,000 £4,000 - - 12/12 (0:34)
95 February 5, 2015 Paul Sinha £4,000 £4,000 - - 13/13 (0:40)
96 March 3, 2015 Anne Hegerty £4,000 - £6,000 £2,000 17/17 (0:10)
97 March 4, 2015 Shaun Wallace £3,000 £40,000 - - 11/10
98 March 5, 2015 Paul Sinha £8,000 £8,000 - - 20/19
99 March 6, 2015 Mark Labbett - - - - 16/16 (0:29)
100 March 9, 2015 Mark Labbett £5,000 £7,000 £5,000 - 19/19 (0:38)
101 March 10, 2015 Anne Hegerty - - £1,000 £8,000 19/18
102 March 11, 2015 Shaun Wallace - - £9,000 - 12/12 (0:19)
103 March 12, 2015 Paul Sinha £25,000 £30,000 - -£5,000 17/17 (0:31)
104 March 13, 2015 Mark Labbett - - £5,000 - 15/15 (0:34)
105 March 16, 2015 Paul Sinha - £4,000 - £3,000 21/19
106 March 17, 2015 Mark Labbett £5,000 £4,000 £31,000 £6,000 16/16 (0:24)
107 March 18, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £7,000 £3,000 - 13/13 (0:40)
108 March 19, 2015 Shaun Wallace - £7,000 £5,000 £3,000 19/16
109 March 20, 2015 Anne Hegerty £6,000 - - £5 9/9 (0:43)
110 March 23, 2015 Anne Hegerty £2,000 £6,000 £6,000 £7,000 20/10
111 March 24, 2015 Mark Labbett £1 £5,000 - - 14/14 (0:38)
112 March 25, 2015 Paul Sinha £8,000 £1,000 - £5,000 17/13
113 March 26, 2015 Mark Labbett £20,000 £40,000 £6,000 £5,000 18/18 (0:40)
114 March 27, 2015 Shaun Wallace £300 - £2,000 £4,000 12/12 (0:28)
115 March 30, 2015 Mark Labbett - £6,000 - £9,000 13/13 (0:04)
116 March 31, 2015 Paul Sinha £5,000 - - £1,000 15/13
117 April 1, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £5,000 £4,000 £5,000 10/10 (0:56)
118 April 2, 2015 Shaun Wallace £6,000 £8,000 -£1,000 £4,000 17/15
119 April 3, 2015 Paul Sinha £6,000 - £300 - 13/13 (0:27)
120 April 6, 2015 Anne Hegerty £7,000 - £4,000 - 14/14 (0:10)
121 April 7, 2015 Mark Labbett £4,000 £7,000 - - 18/18 (0:21)
122 April 8, 2015 Paul Sinha £3,000 £6,000 £4,000 £3,000 20/16
123 April 9, 2015 Mark Labbett £7,000 £3,000 £5,000 £5,000 18/18 (0:06)
124 April 10, 2015 Shaun Wallace - - - £50,000 9/9 (1:13)
125 April 13, 2015 Mark Labbett - £6,000 £8,000 - 18/18 (0:25)
126 April 14, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £8,000 £3,000 £6,000 19/17
127 April 15, 2015 Shaun Wallace - £4,000 - - 6/6 (0:48)
128 April 16, 2015 Anne Hegerty £4,000 £8,000 -£1,000 £8,000 20/20 (0:14)
129 April 17, 2015 Paul Sinha £6,000 £7,000 - £6,000 16/16 (0:07)
130 June 1, 2015 Shaun Wallace £5,000 £7,000 - - 16/14
131 November 19, 2014 Mark Labbett £4,000 £5,000 £1,000 - 14/14 (0:26)
132 June 3, 2015 Paul Sinha £5,000 £3,000 £4,000 £48,000 22/12
133 June 4, 2015 Anne Hegerty £6,000 £6,000 - - 13/13 (0:48)
134 June 5, 2015 Paul Sinha £4,000 £6,000 - -£1,000 16/16 (0:23)
135 June 8, 2015 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £5,000 £5,000 - 17/17 (0:32)
136 June 9, 2015 Shaun Wallace - - £3,000 £67,000 13/13 (0:22)
137 June 10, 2015 Paul Sinha - £8,000 £2,000 £4,000 18/18 (0:03)
138 June 11, 2015 Anne Hegerty £3,000 £38,000 £4,000 - 20/18
139 June 12, 2015 Mark Labbett - £6,000 - - 13/13 (0:10)
140 June 15, 2015 Paul Sinha £30,000 £6,000 -£6,000 - 13/13 (0:29)
141 June 16, 2015 Mark Labbett £7,000 - - £1,000 18/18 (0:02)
142 June 17, 2015 Shaun Wallace £7,000 £6,000 - £77,000 20/14
143 June 18, 2015 Mark Labbett £4,000 - £4,000 £7,000 15/15 (0:29)
144 June 19, 2015 Paul Sinha £6,000 - £6,000 - 14/14 (0:36)
145 July 3, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £8,000 £1,000 - 15/15 (0:41)
146 June 24, 2015 Anne Hegerty - £7,000 - - 11/11 (1:05)
147 . Paul Sinha £2,000 £7,000 - £1,000 17/17 (0:27)
148 . Shaun Wallace £6,000 £3,000 - £8,000 20/20 (0:01)
149 . Anne Hegerty £5,000 £6,000 £300 £4,000 18/16
150 . Mark Labbett - £4,000 - £3,000 13/13 (0:55)

Text Santa 2015 - Labbett was challenged by four celebrities: Denise Robertson [£5,000], Brian McFadden [£6,000], Andrea McLean [£6,000], and Robert Rinder [£6,000], all wearing Christmas jumpers. The celebrities all made it through to the final and scored 21, but they were caught by Labbett with 24 seconds remaining. Thus, three charities each received £2,000.


Day 275 October 20, 2011 - History

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Oil Price History and Analysis

Like prices of other commodities the price of crude oil experiences wide price swings in times of shortage or oversupply. The crude oil price cycle may extend over several years responding to changes in demand as well as OPEC and non-OPEC supply. We will discuss the impact of geopolitical events, supply demand and stocks as well as NYMEX trading and the economy.

Throughout much of the twentieth century, the price of U.S. petroleum was heavily regulated through production or price controls. In the post World War II era, U.S. oil prices at the wellhead averaged $28.52 per barrel adjusted for inflation to 2010 dollars. In the absence of price controls, the U.S. price would have tracked the world price averaging near $30.54. Over the same post war period, the median for the domestic and the adjusted world price of crude oil was $20.53 in 2010 prices. Adjusted for inflation, from 1947 to 2010 oil prices only exceeded $20.53 per barrel 50 percent of the time. (See note in the box on right.)

Until March 28, 2000 when OPEC adopted the $22-$28 price band for the OPEC basket of crude, real oil prices only exceeded $30.00 per barrel in response to war or conflict in the Middle East. With limited spare production capacity, OPEC abandoned its price band in 2005 and was powerless to stem a surge in oil prices, which was reminiscent of the late 1970s.

The very long-term view is similar. Since 1869, US crude oil prices adjusted for inflation averaged $23.67 per barrel in 2010 dollars compared to $24.58 for world oil prices.

Fifty percent of the time prices U.S. and world prices were below the median oil price of $24.58 per barrel.

If oil prices revert to the mean this period is a little more appropriate for today's analyst. It follows the peak in U.S. oil production eliminating the effects of the Texas Railroad Commission which effectively controlled oil prices prior to 1970. It is a period when the Seven Sisters were no longer able to dominate oil production and prices and an era of greater influence for OPEC oil producers. As we will see in the detail below, influence over the price of oil is not equivalent to control.

Prices in the mid $30s seem exceptionally low by today's standards. However, when the current President of the United States took office the price was $35.00 per barrel. By the end of 2009 prices had doubled bringing the average for 2009 to $56.35 or $57.00 in 2010$.

From 1948 through the end of the 1960s, crude oil prices ranged between $2.50 and $3.00. The price oil rose from $2.50 in 1948 to about $3.00 in 1957. When viewed in 2010 dollars, a different story emerges with crude oil prices fluctuating between $17 and $19 during most of the period. The apparent 20% price increase in nominal prices just kept up with inflation.

From 1958 to 1970, prices were stable near $3.00 per barrel, but in real terms the price of crude oil declined from $19 to $14 per barrel. Not only was price of crude lower when adjusted for inflation, but in 1971 and 1972 the international producer suffered the additional effect of a weaker US dollar.

OPEC was established in 1960 with five founding members: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Two of the representatives at the initial meetings previously studied the Texas Railroad Commission's method of controlling price through limitations on production. By the end of 1971, six other nations had joined the group: Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria and Nigeria. From the foundation of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries through 1972, member countries experienced steady decline in the purchasing power of a barrel of oil.

Throughout the post war period exporting countries found increased demand for their crude oil but a 30% decline in the purchasing power of a barrel of oil. In March 1971, the balance of power shifted. That month the Texas Railroad Commission set proration at 100 percent for the first time. This meant that Texas producers were no longer limited in the volume of oil that they could produce from their wells. More important, it meant that the power to control crude oil prices shifted from the United States (Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana) to OPEC. By 1971, there was no spare production capacity in the U.S. and therefore no tool to put an upper limit on prices.

A little more than two years later, OPEC through the unintended consequence of war obtained a glimpse of its power to influence prices. It took over a decade from its formation for OPEC to realize the extent of its ability to influence the world market.

Yom Kippur War - Arab Oil Embargo*

In 1972, the price of crude oil was below $3.50 per barrel. The Yom Kippur War started with an attack on Israel by Syria and Egypt on October 5, 1973. The United States and many countries in the western world showed support for Israel. In reaction to the support of Israel, several Arab exporting nations joined by Iran imposed an embargo on the countries supporting Israel. While these nations curtailed production by five million barrels per day, other countries were able to increase production by a million barrels. The net loss of four million barrels per day extended through March of 1974. It represented 7 percent of the free world production. By the end of 1974, the nominal price of oil had quadrupled to more than $12.00.

Any doubt that the ability to influence and in some cases control crude oil prices had passed from the United States to OPEC was removed as a consequence of the Oil Embargo. The extreme sensitivity of prices to supply shortages, became all too apparent when prices increased 400 percent in six short months.

From 1974 to 1978, the world crude oil price was relatively flat ranging from $12.52 per barrel to $14.57 per barrel. When adjusted for inflation world oil prices were in a period of moderate decline. during that period OPEC capacity and production was relatively flat near 30 million barrels per day.

In contrast, non-OPEC production increased from 25 million barrels per day to 31 million barrels per day.

* While commonly called the Arab Oil Embargo or the OPEC Oil Embargo, neither is technically correct. Arab nations were joined by Persian Iran and founding OPEC member Venezuela did not join in the embargo.

U.S. and World Events and Oil Prices 1973-1981

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OPEC Oil Production 1973 - June 2011


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In 1979 and 1980, events in Iran and Iraq led to another round of crude oil price increases. The Iranian revolution resulted in the loss of 2.0-2.5 million barrels per day of oil production between November 1978 and June 1979. At one point production almost halted.

The Iranian revolution was the proximate cause of the highest price in post-WWII history. However, revolution's impact on prices would have been limited and of relatively short duration had it not been for subsequent events. In fact, shortly after the revolution, Iranian production was up to four million barrels per day.

In September 1980, Iran already weakened by the revolution was invaded by Iraq. By November, the combined production of both countries was only a million barrels per day. It was down 6.5 million barrels per day from a year before. As a consequence, worldwide crude oil production was 10 percent lower than in 1979.

The loss of production from the combined effects of the Iranian revolution and the Iraq-Iran War caused crude oil prices to more than double. The nominal price went from $14 in 1978 to $35 per barrel in 1981.

Over three decades later Iran's production is only two-thirds of the level reached under the government of Reza Pahlavi, the former Shah of Iran.

Iraq's production is now increasing, but remains a million barrels below its peak before the Iraq-Iran War.

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Iraq Oil production 1973 - June 2011

The rapid increase in crude prices from 1973 to 1981 would have been less was it not for United States energy policy during the post Embargo period. The U.S. imposed price controls on domestically produced oil. The obvious result of the price controls was that U.S. consumers of crude oil paid about 50 percent more for imports than domestic production and U.S. producers received less than world market price. In effect, the domestic petroleum industry was subsidizing the U.S. consumer.

Did the policy achieve its goal? In the short-term, the recession induced by the 1973-1974 crude oil price spike was somewhat less severe because U.S. consumers faced lower prices than the rest of the world. However, it had other effects as well.

In the absence of price controls, U.S. exploration and production would certainly have been significantly greater. Higher petroleum prices faced by consumers would have resulted in lower rates of consumption: automobiles would have achieved higher miles per gallon sooner, homes and commercial buildings would have been better insulated and improvements in industrial energy efficiency would have been greater than they were during this period. Fuel substitution away from petroleum to natural gas for electric power generation would have occurred earlier.

Consequently, the United States would have been less dependent on imports in 1979-1980 and the price increase in response to Iranian and Iraqi supply interruptions would have been significantly less.

The Texas Railroad Commission could control prices because the state could enforce cutbacks on producers. The only enforcement mechanism that ever existed in OPEC is Saudi spare capacity and that power resides with a single member not the organization as a whole.

With enough spare capacity to be able to increase production sufficiently to offset the impact of lower prices on its own revenue, Saudi Arabia could enforce discipline by threatening to increase production enough to crash prices. In reality even this was not an OPEC enforcement mechanism unless OPEC's goals coincided with those of Saudi Arabia.

During the 1979-1980 period of rapidly increasing prices, Saudi Arabia's oil minister Ahmed Yamani repeatedly warned other members of OPEC that high prices would lead to a reduction in demand. His warnings fell on deaf ears. Surging prices caused several reactions among consumers: better insulation in new homes, increased insulation in many older homes, more energy efficiency in industrial processes, and automobiles with higher efficiency. These factors along with a global recession caused a reduction in demand which led to lower crude prices.

Unfortunately for OPEC only the global recession was temporary. Nobody rushed to remove insulation from their homes or to replace energy efficient equipment and factories -- much of the reaction to the oil price increase of the end of the decade was permanent and would never respond to lower prices with increased consumption of oil.

Higher prices in the late 1970s also resulted in increased exploration and production outside of OPEC. From 1980 to 1986 non-OPEC production increased 6 million barrels per day. Despite lower oil prices during that period new discoveries made in the 1970s continued to come online.

OPEC was faced with lower demand and higher supply from outside the organization. From 1982 to 1985, OPEC attempted to set production quotas low enough to stabilize prices. These attempts resulted in repeated failure, as various members of OPEC produced beyond their quotas. During most of this period Saudi Arabia acted as the swing producer cutting its production in an attempt to stem the free fall in prices. In August 1985, the Saudis tired of this role. They linked their oil price to the spot market for crude and by early 1986 increased production from two million barrels per day to five million. Crude oil prices plummeted falling below $10 per barrel by mid-1986. Despite the fall in prices Saudi revenue remained about the same with higher volumes compensating for lower prices.

A December 1986 OPEC price accord set to target $18 per barrel, but it was already breaking down by January of 1987 and prices remained weak.

The price of crude oil spiked in 1990 with the lower production, uncertainty associated with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the ensuing Gulf War. The world and particularly the Middle East had a much harsher view of Saddam Hussein invading Arab Kuwait than they did Persian Iran. The proximity to the world's largest oil producer helped to shape the reaction.

World Events and Crude Oil Prices 1981-1998

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U.S. Petroleum Consumption

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Non-OPEC Production & Crude Oil Prices


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OPEC Production & Crude Oil Prices


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The price cycle then turned up. The United States economy was strong and the Asian Pacific region was booming. From 1990 to 1997, world oil consumption increased 6.2 million barrels per day. Asian consumption accounted for all but 300,000 barrels per day of that gain and contributed to a price recovery that extended into 1997. Declining Russian production contributed to the price recovery. Between 1990 and 1996 Russian production declined more than five million barrels per day.

Russian Crude Oil Production

The price increases came to a rapid end in 1997 and 1998 when the impact of the economic crisis in Asia was either ignored or underestimated by OPEC. In December 1997, OPEC increased its quota by 2.5 million barrels per day (10 percent) to 27.5 million barrels per day effective January 1, 1998. The rapid growth in Asian economies came to a halt. In 1998, Asian Pacific oil consumption declined for the first time since 1982. The combination of lower consumption and higher OPEC production sent prices into a downward spiral. In response, OPEC cut quotas by 1.25 million barrels per day in April and another 1.335 million in July. The price continued down through December 1998.

Prices began to recover in early 1999. In April, OPEC reduced production by another 1.719 million barrels. As usual not all of the quotas were observed, but between early 1998 and the middle of 1999 OPEC production dropped by about three million barrels per day. The cuts were sufficient to move prices above $25 per barrel.

With minimal Y2K problems and growing U.S. and world economies, the price continued to rise throughout 2000 to a post 1981 high. In 2000 between April and October, three successive OPEC quota increases totaling 3.2 million barrels per day were not able to stem the price increase. Prices finally started down following another quota increase of 500,000 effective November 1, 2000.

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Once again it appeared that OPEC overshot the mark. In 2001, a weakened US economy and increases in non-OPEC production put downward pressure on prices. In response OPEC once again entered into a series of reductions in member quotas cutting 3.5 million barrels by September 1, 2001. In the absence of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, this would have been sufficient to moderate or even reverse the downward trend.

In the wake of the attack, crude oil prices plummeted. Spot prices for the U.S. benchmark West Texas Intermediate were down 35 percent by the middle of November. Under normal circumstances a drop in price of this magnitude would have resulted in another round of quota reductions. Given the political climate OPEC delayed additional cuts until January 2002. It then reduced its quota by 1.5 million barrels per day and was joined by several non-OPEC producers including Russia which promised combined production cuts of an additional 462,500 barrels. This had the desired effect with oil prices moving into the $25 range by March 2002. By midyear the non-OPEC members were restoring their production cuts but prices continued to rise as U.S. inventories reached a 20-year low later in the year.

By year end oversupply was not a problem. Problems in Venezuela led to a strike at PDVSA causing Venezuelan production to plummet. In the wake of the strike Venezuela was never able to restore capacity to its previous level and is still about 900,000 barrels per day below its peak capacity of 3.5 million barrels per day. OPEC increased quotas by 2.8 million barrels per day in January and February 2003.

On March 19, 2003, just as some Venezuelan production was beginning to return, military action commenced in Iraq. Meanwhile, inventories remained low in the U.S. and other OECD countries. With an improving economy U.S. demand was increasing and Asian demand for crude oil was growing at a rapid pace.

The loss of production capacity in Iraq and Venezuela combined with increased OPEC production to meet growing international demand led to the erosion of excess oil production capacity. In mid 2002, there were more than six million barrels per day of excess production capacity and by mid-2003 the excess was below two million. During much of 2004 and 2005 the spare capacity to produce oil was less than a million barrels per day. A million barrels per day is not enough spare capacity to cover an interruption of supply from most OPEC producers.

In a world that consumes more than 80 million barrels per day of petroleum products that added a significant risk premium to crude oil price and was largely responsible for prices in excess of $40-$50 per barrel.

Other major factors contributing to higher prices included a weak dollar and the rapid growth in Asian economies and their petroleum consumption. The 2005 hurricanes and U.S. refinery problems associated with the conversion from MTBE to ethanol as a gasoline additive also contributed to higher prices.

Russian Crude Oil Production

Venezuelan Oil Production


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Excess Crude Oil Production Capacity

While speculation in the futures market was certainly a component of price increases over the last decade, research has yet to provide incontrovertible evidence that it was a major driver of prices. Over the last decade the number of futures contracts on NYMEX increased at over ten times the rate of increase of world petroleum consumption. In recent years, the ICE Brent contracts grew at a higher rate than NYMEX.

A NYMEX futures contract is a contract to deliver 1,000 barrels of light sweet crude oil in a certain month to the buyer at Cushing, Oklahoma. There is a direct link between futures prices and the cash price at Cushing. We will illustrate with an example. A producer of crude oil is offered $80 per barrel for 1,000 barrel of oil today. The same producer sees that the futures contract for delivery next month is trading at $85 dollars. Instead of selling at $80 to the refiner the producer could sell a futures contract for delivery next month at $85, store the 1,000 barrels for a month and be $5 better off less the cost of a months storage. The refiner needing the 1,000 barrels of crude today is then in the position that he must offer the producer something closer to the $85 NYMEX price to obtain the crude.


Watch the video: The Battle for the Ratification of the Constitution- National History Day 2011