Chambers DE-391 - History

Chambers DE-391 - History


Born in LaHabra, Calif., 10 June 1914, Russell Franklin Chambers was appointed aviation cadet, USNR, 5 December 1938 and commissioned ensign 4 November 1939. On duty in the Philippines when the United States entered World War II, Ensign Chambers was reported missing in action 27 December 1941 after an engagement with the enemy over Jolo. He was officially declared dead 28 December 1942.

(DE-391: dp. 1,200; 1. 306'; b. 36'7", dr. 8'7"; s. 21 k.
epl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp.' 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.,
cl. Edsall )

Chambers (DE-391) was launched 17 August 1943 by Brown Shipbuilding Co., Houston, Tex.; sponsored by Mrs. R. F. Chambers; commissioned 22 November 1943 Commander H. A. Loughlin, USCG, in command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet.

After a period as training ship for prospective escort vessel crews, Chambers cleared Norfolk 13 February 1944 on the first of eight convoy escort crossings to North African ports from Norfolk and New York. Steadfast to her important duty of guarding the men and materiel vital to the success of operations in the European theater, Chambers defied the hazards of the sea and the enemy to bring her charges safely to port.

On 8 July 1946 Chambers sailed from New York for Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 16 August to transport homeward bound servicemen to San Pedro, Calif. She put out to sea from San Pedro for the east coast 11 September, and on 22 April 1946, was decommissioned and placed in reserve at Green Cove Springs,FL

Loaned to the Treasury Department, Chambers was commissioned as a Coast Guard ship 11 June 1952, and redesignated WDE-491. Operating from New Bedford Mass., she served on Atlantic weather patrols and made several cruises to Newfoundland until 30 July 1954 when the Coast Guard decommissioned her and returned her to the Navy. Returned to reserve status, Chambers was reclassified DER-391 on 28 October 1954, and began conversion to a radar picket escort vessel.

Chambers was recommissioned 1 June 1955 for radar picket duty out of Newport, R.I. She was assigned to the Atlantic Barrier Patrol in June 1966, with which she operated until placed out of commission in reserve 20 June 1960, at Philadelphia.

3.9.1 is the first version of Python to support macOS 11 Big Sur. With Xcode 11 and later it is now possible to build “Universal 2” binaries which work on Apple Silicon. We are providing such an installer as the macos11.0 variant. This installer can be deployed back to older versions, tested down to OS X 10.9. As we are waiting for an updated version of pip , please consider the macos11.0 installer experimental.

This work would not have been possible without the effort of Ronald Oussoren, Ned Deily, and Lawrence D’Anna from Apple. Thank you!

This is the first version of Python to default to the 64-bit installer on Windows. The installer now also actively disallows installation on Windows 7. Python 3.9 is incompatible with this unsupported version of Windows.

Chambers History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

During that dark period of history known as the Middle Ages, the name of Chambers was first used in France. Many names with Old French origins arrived in Scotland and England in the 11th century with the Norman Conquest. While the patronymic and metronymic surnames, which are derived from the name of the father and mother respectively, are the most common form of a hereditary surname in France, occupational surnames also emerged during the late Middle Ages. Many people, such as the Chambers family, adopted the name of their occupation as their surname. However, an occupational name did not become a hereditary surname until the office or type of employment became hereditary. The surname Chambers was an occupational name for a servant in the bedroom of a nobleman. Further research revealed that the name is derived from the Old French word "chambre" which means room, and refers to someone of the title chamberlain, which later came to signify a more administrative office in noble households.

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Early Origins of the Chambers family

The surname Chambers was first found in Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych), a historic county in Northeast Wales, created by the Laws in Wales Act 1536, where they held lands at Llewenne, granted to John de Chambre from the Earl of Lincoln, who was Constable of Chester. John was a "nobelle Normanne who entred Englaunde in ye traine of King Williaume."

One of the earliest records of the family was on the infamous side. John a Chamber or Chamberlayne (d. 1489), was an English rebel, "a knight of great influence in the north, excited the people to join the rebellion headed by Sir John Egremond in Northumberland and Durham against the heavy subsidy of 1489. Henry, Earl of Northumberland, who had orders to enforce the tax, endeavoured to persuade him to cease his agitation. Chamber would not hear him, and on 20 April the earl was slain by the rebels at Cock Lodge, near Thirsk. Then Thomas, Earl of Surrey, was sent to put down the insurrection. He took Chamber and utterly routed the rebels. Chamber was executed at York. " [1]

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Early History of the Chambers family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Chambers research. Another 195 words (14 lines of text) covering the years 1296, 1465, 1472, 1491, 1726, 1796, 1775, 1530, 1592, 1645, 1703, 1691, 1694, 1696, 1702, 1664, 1546, 1604, 1546, 1592, 1609 and are included under the topic Early Chambers History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Chambers Spelling Variations

Spelling variations of this family name include: Chambers, Chalmers, Chamer, Chalmairs, Challmers and others.

Early Notables of the Chambers family (pre 1700)

Notable among the family at this time was David Chambers, Lord Ormond (1530?-1592), Scottish historian and judge, born in Ross-shire and educated at Aberdeen, where he took orders. Alexander Chalmers (1645-1703) was a Scottish resident of the Polish city of Warsaw, he served as a.
Another 45 words (3 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Chambers Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Chambers family to Ireland

Some of the Chambers family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 214 words (15 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Chambers migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Chambers Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • James Chambers, who settled in Virginia in 1620
  • Thomas Chambers, who settled in Virginia in 1623
  • Alice Chambers who settled in Virginia in 1623
  • Alice Chambers, who landed in Virginia in 1623 [2]
  • Robert Chambers, aged only 13 settled in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1635
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Chambers Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Jane Chambers, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [2]
  • Joseph Chambers, who settled in Georgia in 1733
  • Patrick Chambers, who landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1746 [2]
  • Lillias Chambers, who arrived in South Carolina in 1772 [2]
  • John Chambers, who settled in Maryland in 1775
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Chambers Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Edward Chambers, who settled in New York City in 1804
  • Edward Chambers, who landed in New York, NY in 1804 [2]
  • William Chambers, who landed in New York, NY in 1804 [2]
  • Win Chambers, who arrived in America in 1805 [2]
  • Isa Chambers, who arrived in America in 1805 [2]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Chambers migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Chambers Settlers in Canada in the 17th Century
Chambers Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Henry Chambers, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Charles Chambers, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • John Chambers, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • John Chambers, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1760
  • William Chambers, who settled in St. John's, Newfoundland in 1779 [3]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Chambers Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • John Chambers, aged 19, who arrived in Canada in 1811
  • John Chambers, aged 19, who landed in Canada in 1811
  • James Chambers, who landed in Canada in 1816
  • Alexander Chambers was Justice of the Peace for southern Newfoundland in 1834 [3]
  • George Chambers, aged 17, a farmer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Protector" in 1834
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Chambers Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century
  • Mrs. Louie F. Chambers (Mrs), (b. 1878), aged 25, Cornish settler travelling aboard the ship "Patricia" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 20th August 1903 en route to Hamilton, Ontario, Canada [4]
  • R T Chambers, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907

Chambers migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Chambers Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Miss Eleanor Chambers, (Ellen, Chamberlain), (b. 1787), aged 25, English house servant who was convicted in Middlesex, England for life for theft, transported aboard the "Emu" in October 1812, the ship was captured and the passengers put ashore, the convicts were then transported aboard the "Broxburnebury" in January 1812 arriving in New South Wales, Australia[5]
  • Mr. Edward Chambers, English convict who was convicted in Northampton, Northamptonshire, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Chapman" on 6th April 1824, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [6]
  • Hugh Chambers, a harness-maker, who arrived in New South Wales, Australia sometime between 1825 and 1832
  • Mr. Samuel Chambers, British convict who was convicted in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England for life, transported aboard the "Bussorah Merchant" on 1st October 1829, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [7]
  • Mr. James Chambers, English convict who was convicted in Kent, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Aurora" on 18th June 1835, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [8]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Chambers migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Chambers Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Mrs. Mary Chambers, (b. 1826), aged 32, English settler from Hertfordshire travelling from Gravesend aboard the ship "Zealandia" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 21st September 1858 [9]
  • Mr. Charles William Chambers, (b. 1828), aged 30, English carpenter from Hertfordshire travelling from Gravesend aboard the ship "Zealandia" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 21st September 1858 [9]
  • Miss Jessie Mary Chambers, (b. 1857), aged 1, English settler from Hertfordshire travelling from Gravesend aboard the ship "Zealandia" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 21st September 1858 [9]
  • Mr. James Chambers, (b. 1836), aged 22, Irish labourer from County Down travelling from London aboard the ship "Strathallan" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 21st January 1859 [9]
  • William Chambers, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Ida Zeigler" in 1863
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Chambers (post 1700) +

  • Mortimer H. Chambers (1927-2020), American Ancient Historian from Saginaw, Michigan
  • Anne Beau Cox Chambers (1919-2020), American media proprietor and diplomat, United States Ambassador to Belgium from 1977 to 1981
  • Mr. John Murice Chambers B.E.M., British recipient of the British Empire Medal on 8th June 2018, for services to Equestrian Sport [10]
  • Mrs. Linda Chambers M.B.E., British Early Years Co-ordinator for Ballybeen Women’s Centre Pre-School, was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire on 8th June 2018, for services to Education [11]
  • Emma Gwynedd Mary Chambers (1964-2018), English actress, best known for her role as Alice Tinker in the BBC comedy The Vicar of Dibley and as Honey Thacker in the film Notting Hill (1999)
  • Gretta Chambers CC OQ (1927-2017), Canadian journalist and former Chancellor of McGill University (1991-1999)
  • Robert Stanley Chambers QC (1953-2013), New Zealand judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand
  • Brigadier-General William Earl Chambers (1892-1952), American Chief of Operations Division, G-3 Section, US Army Forces Pacific (1945) [12]
  • Stuart Chambers (b. 1937), New Zealand ornithologist
  • Jay Vivian "Whittaker" Chambers (1901-1961), American writer, editor and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
  • . (Another 8 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Chambers family +

HMS Prince of Wales
  • Mr. William Robert Chambers (b. 1920), English Corporal from Leiston, Suffolk, England, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [13]
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. Guy Winstaney P. Chambers, American 2nd Class passenger from Boston, Massachusetts, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [14]
  • Mrs. Ethel Chambers, American 2nd Class passenger from Boston, Massachusetts, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking and was recovered [14]
RMS Titanic
  • Mrs. Bertha Chambers, (née Griggs), aged 32, American First Class passenger from New York City, New York who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping in life boat 5 [15]
  • Mr. Norman Campbell Chambers, aged 27, American First Class passenger from New York City, New York who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping in life boat 5 [15]

Related Stories +

The Chambers Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Spero
Motto Translation: I hope.

Legends of America

An old gas station in Chambers, Arizona by Jay Gannett, Flickr

Just about seven miles west of Sanders is the small town of Chambers, Arizona. Established as a railroad siding by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, the origin of its name has two possible sources. One claim says that it was named for Edward Chambers, a vice president for the railroad. The second claim is that it was named for Charles Chambers who established a trading post here sometime prior to 1888. In the early days of the railroad, J.L. Hubbell, who established the Hubbell Trading Post in Ganado, some 50 miles to the north, maintained a warehouse here to send and receive freight.

In 1907, a post office was established in the settlement, and the following year, Wells Fargo established a stage station. By 1913, Chambers was a stop on the cross-regional road that became the National Old Trails Highway and later, Route 66. As homesteaders proliferated in the surrounding area, Chambers became a central meeting place with a public school by 1916. By the 1920s, Chambers had also become a railroad shipping point for feeder stock – cattle and sheep – from Hubbell’s and other trading posts to the north as well as ranchers and homesteaders in the surrounding area.

In 1926, the name of Chambers was changed to Halloysite for a number of years because of a clay mine extracting that mineral nearby. Halloysite is similar to kaolinite and is used in porcelain china. The name was changed back to Chambers on June 1, 1930. From 1960-76 wells extracted helium from beneath the surface near Chambers.

Like the other settlements along this route, Chambers has boasted a number of trading posts throughout the years, because of its varied central place functions, early ones being sidelines of ranchers and later ones emphasizing sales of Indian souvenirs to tourists.

The unincorporated community of Chambers is located at the j unction of Interstate 40 and U.S. Route 191.

An interesting side trip can be taken here to the Hubbell Trading Post. With this regions’ long history of trading posts, a visit to the Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site will give you look at one of the oldest trading posts in the Southwest. It is still in operation today, providing all manner of local Native American product. It is located about 47 miles north of Chambers — follow US 191 north to Ganado, Arizona.

Wide Ruins Trading Post, Chambers, Arizona

If you take this side trip to the north, you will pass by a place called Wide Ruins, some 17 miles north of Chambers. This was the former site of an impressive Chacoan-style pueblo ruin named Kin Tiel. Unfortunately, the walls of Kin Teel, some of which were 12 feet tall, were pulled down to extract building stones for the construction of a trading post about 1895.

When a few rooms were excavated in 1929 by Haury and Hargrave for the National Geographic Society, it was determined that the outer walls and terraced dwellings looked down on open courts. From the beams in the kiva roofs, archeologists estimated these rooms were built between 1264 and 1285 A.D., indicating Pueblo III and early Pueblo IV periods of occupation. Unfortunately, in about 1895, these walls were pulled down to extract building stones for the construction of a trading post. A trading post remained here for decades until it closed and was also torn down in the 1980s. Sadly, there is nothing that remains of this once magnificent pueblo.

Continue your journey along Route 66 just a short seven miles to Navajo, at Exit 325.

The U.S. Chamber's History

The idea of a national institution to represent the unified interests of U.S. business first took shape when President William Howard Taft, in a message to Congress on December 7, 1911, addressed the need for a "central organization in touch with associations and chambers of commerce throughout the country and able to keep purely American interests in a closer touch with different phases of commercial affairs."

Four months later, on April 22, 1912, President Taft's vision became a reality when a group of 700 delegates from various commercial and trade organizations came together to create a unified body of business interest that today is the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.

In 1925, construction on the Chamber headquarters was completed on property that had belonged to Daniel Webster (read the history of the building), and the U.S. business community made it a rallying point for promoting and defending free enterprise and individual opportunity.

Over 100 years later, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce is the world's largest business federation representing the interests of more than 3 million businesses of all sizes, sectors, and regions, as well as state and local chambers and industry associations.

The U.S. Chamber and the legacy of Daniel Webster share more than just the hallowed ground that is now 1615 H Street Northwest. This venerable institution and this statesman's spirit share an unwavering commitment to democracy, individual opportunity, and free enterprise. They are forever bonded by the words of Webster, which were inscribed in stone in the original Chamber building:

Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered."

— Daniel Webster, June 17, 1825, Speech Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Charlestown, Massachusetts

U.S. Coast Guard Cutter George M. Bibb

The U.S. Coast Guard cutter George M. Bibb (Builder's No. CG-71) was built at the Charleston Navy Yard, Charleston, South Carolina, and was launched in 1937. She was commissioned on 10 March 1937. The ship was 327 feet in length, with a draft of 12 and a half feet. Her propelling plant consisted of twin propellers powered by geared turbines supplied with steam from oil fired boilers. The first assignment of George M. Bibb after her commissioning was to the Fifth Coast Guard District, with Norfolk as her home port. Sometime in May or June of 1937 her named was shortened to Bibb.

In 1938 the ship made a special practice cruise with cadets from the Coast Guard Academy, and in 1939 spent about three months on temporary duty with the Navy, engaging in joint maneuvers. Later that year Bibb joined a destroyer squadron for the assistance of shipping in the North Atlantic. In the winter of 1939 she was part of the Grand Banks Patrol.

When the Grand Banks cruises were discontinued on 27 January 1940 Bibb was then assigned duty with on the weather stations. These had only recently been implemented on a suggestion by then CDR Edward H. "Iceberg" Smith, LCDR George B. Gelly, and a more influential suggestion by President Franklin Roosevelt. Since the war had stopped the flow of weather data from merchant ships, the Coast Guard drew the duty of maintaining a continuous weather patrol consisting of 327-foot cutters at two stations in the mid-Atlantic located as follows: Station No. 1, 350 38' N x 530 21' W and Station No. 2, 370 44' N x 410 13' W. Here the cutters steamed continuously within a 100 square mile area from the center of the station with each patrol lasting approximately 21 days. Each cutter embarked meteorologists from the Weather Bureau who made observations with radiosondes and balloons, and the cutters provided Pan American Airways Boeing 314 flying boats: Yankee Clipper, Dixie Clipper, and American Clipper, with weather and position reports and transmitted radio signals to allow the planes to take accurate bearings. The Bibb spent much of 1940 and 1941 on weather patrol.

Anti-submarine weaponry was added in mid-1941 and under Executive Order of 11 September 1941, Bibb became eligible for transfer to the Navy by agreement between the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Coast Guard. The Navy then designated her as WPG-31.

The Bibb made her first attack on an enemy submarine on 3 April 1942, firing five "Y" gun charges and dropping two depth charges on what proved to be a doubtful sound contact. The Bibb was underway on zig-zag courses at five knots at the time from Norfolk to Casco Day, Maine. She had barely arrived at Casco Bay on 3 April when she was underway again searching for a Navy plane that had been forced down at sea. The search was unsuccessful but the cutter depth-charged another submarine contact. Ordered to Boston Navy Yard for repairs, she searched en route for a Coast Guard plane reported down in the vicinity of White Island.

Standing out from Boston, after repairs, the Bibb received a message from the cutter Modoc (WPG-46) on 13 April that a plane had reported a periscope in her vicinity. Proceeding to the area she searched with the Modoc without results. On 14 May Bibb was en route to Iceland as the flagship of Task Unit 24.6.2 with the USS Leary (DD-158) and USS Badger (DD-126). On the 6th two other destroyers, USS Schenk (DD-159) and USS Babbitt (DD-128) were relieved, and USS Decatur (DD-341) and cutter Duane (WPG-33) joined the escort, which had met the 13-ship convoy ONSJ-94 on a southerly course to Iceland. Two depth charges were dropped on a sound contact on the 7th and the search continued for two hours before rejoining the convoy. Again on the 13th, off Skagie Point, Iceland, a charge was dropped on a doubtful contact.

On 9 June 1942 Bibb was underway as escort commander for convoy SCL-85, consisting of 14 ships. Dropping a 600 lb. depth charge on a doubtful sound contact, a school of stunned fish appeared on the surface. While circling the area to renew contact a whale and school of porpoises was also encountered. The search was discontinued. On 6 July 1942 the Bibb was moored in Hvalfjordur, Iceland, while part of the officers and soundmen received training on the anti-submarine attack teacher aboard HMS Blenheim. The cutter assumed its duties of escort commander of convoy ONSJ-110, with 13 ships, on the 7th, in company with Babbitt. This convoy was part of an east bound trans-Atlantic convoy which had broken off and was headed for Iceland. On the 8th, with Skagie Point abeam to port, the Free French Corvette Roselys joined the task force. Two depth charges were fired on an undersea contact with no visible effects. On the 9th Roselys sank a floating mine and later dropped one charge on a doubtful contact.

On 3 August 1942, Bibb, with escort commander in the cutter Ingham (WPG-35), was again on convoy duty. The Iceland Unit, consisting of seven ships, detached from the main convoy at 1900. At 2210 Bibb received a challenge on bearing 340 degrees and answering it, the challenge was identified as the submarine HMS Seawolf on the surface below the horizon. The Bibb was again underway on 31 August 1942 screening the port bow of the eastbound trans-Atlantic convoy SC-97. At 0809, a large explosion was observed on a ship in the convoy. Shortly after this flames ware observed on a second ship, just ahead of the first one. No sounds of any kind were heard but the deduction, from visual impressions, was that both ships had been torpedoed. Five minutes later the ship on which the explosion had occurred sank, bow first. Ten minutes later the second ship sank, stern first.

Twice during the next two hours, first two and then one ship in the convoy fired into the water, and one of the escorts, HMS Burnham proceeded alongside one of the ship. that had fired and dropped three depth charges. An hour later, another ship in convoy fired at an unidentified object and soon afterwards the lookout on Bibb reported a wake crossing the bow from port to starboard at a distance of about 500 yards, which faded. That evening gunfire was sighted on the horizon, presumed to be HMS Broadway in contact with an enemy submarine. Shortly afterwards, star shells, denoting a submarine attack, appeared in the same area. On the next morning, 1 September 1942 at 1110, Bibb made a sound contact and five minutes later dropped a barrage of six small and two large depth charges. Regaining the contact ten minutes later she again attacked with a barrage of six charges. The contact was not regained after the last attack. That evening 11 ships of the convoy bound for Iceland departed the main convoy with Bibb, Ingham and Schenck as escorts. Shortly afterwards an American airplane, which had been patrolling over the main convoy reported two submarines each 24 miles distant on different bearings. On the 2nd Bibb made a sweep astern and on the 3 September dropped a large depth charge on a doubtful sound contact. By noon on the 3rd the convoy was standing up the swept channel towards Reykjavik, Iceland.

Standing out of Reykjavik harbor on 21 September 1942 Bibb awaited the assembly of a convoy of two columns of five ships each which was underway by 1600. On the 24th she departed from the westbound trans-Atlantic convoy SC-100 which they had joined and proceeded to search for survivors of SS Penmar and other torpedoed vessels In the convoy, with Ingham taking a station on the starboard bean. On the 26th at 0710, after sighting a red flare, she proceeded to investigate and three hours later came upon a freshly broken spar, while passing through an area of oil slicks and debris. An hour later there were numerous red flares and shortly afterwards a lifeboat and raft ware sighted. At noon two boats were lowered and they began bringing 61 survivors aboard, including one naval officer and 23 enlisted men.

Within two hours after being brought aboard, all survivors had been fed, showered, wrapped in blankets and placed on mattresses on the mess deck and in the engineer's passageway. There were no seriously ill men among those brought aboard but all were weak and many required aid in going below deck. These men had been some 60 hours in rough seas in an open boat and on rafts and their condition was much better than would be expected. Many of them were suffering from exposure and edema, but after treatment almost all recovered. It is believed that the type of rubber suit worn by the survivors contributed greatly to their withstanding the exposure. Many had edema of the hands, which resulted, it is believed, from the tight fit these rubber suits have about the wrist. If a type of glove had been incorporated in the suit instead of the tight fitting wrist bands, this edema, it is believed, would not have occurred. The Penmar had been torpedoed about 2200 on 22 September 1942 and had sunk in about 10 minutes.

Two and a half hours after this rescue, Ingham sighted red flares and Bibb proceeded to cover Ingham while she picked up eight survivors from SS Tennessee. There was also an unoccupied lifeboat awash and two unoccupied rafts. On the 27th Bibb, in company with Ingham, searched for survivors of the torpedoed SS Athan Sultan, but being unable to sight anything, even though both vessels had a radar signal which was about 2 to 8 miles distant, they fired three star-shells. They rejoined the convoy on the 28th.

The Bibb closed eastbound trans-Atlantic convoy SC-101 on 30 September 1942, screening the seven ship Iceland bound sector SCL-101 which was breaking off and forming. The Iceland convoy was formed by 0900 and got underway, Bibb screening the rear. At 0730 on 1 October a plane arrived to provide air coverage. On 2 October all ships were inside Grotta Point, Iceland, maneuvering for anchorages.

The Bibb remained anchored in Reykjavik Harbor, Iceland until 19 October 1942, and then got underway escorting a convoy of five ships westward. At 0448 on the 21st she attacked a sound contact with a barrage of depth charges with undetermined results, due to darkness and haze. Three hours later smoke was sighted on the horizon and Bibb advanced speed to investigate, but friendly aircraft in the vicinity, for air coverage, identified the smoke as coming from friendly vessels. Next day she sighted a merchant ship on the horizon and challenged her by blinker. The vessel was identified as the Norwegian SS Mosdale bound for Liverpool. On the 24th Bibb changed course to effect a rendezvous with convoy SC-105, joining the convoy on the 26th. An hour later the Iceland bound section of the convoy departed the main convoy. That might at 2011 two bright red lights were sighted in the convoy and it was learned that the steering machinery on one of the vessels, the SS Orbis, had broken down. The Duane was directed to stand by while repairs were made. Four hours later Orbis was underway to rejoin. The convoy stood up the swept channel to Reykjavik Harbor, Iceland on the 29th and anchored.

On 31 October 1942 Bibb was again underway escorting SS Nova along the southern coast of Iceland. The Nova discharged and took on U. S. Army personnel at Bay dar Fjord on the 1st of November and then proceeded to Seydis Fjord where she remained overnight. On the 2nd they were en route to Raufarhofn, where Nova discharged and loaded passengers. On the 3rd they stopped at Akueyre. On the 14th they observed a plane, which was providing air coverage, crash at sea. The bodies of the navigator and observer were recovered.

The Bibb was underway on 9 November 1942 screening the right flank of a west bound convoy of eight ships. She was joined by the Ingham. On the 11th the convoy became scattered about noon by winds of gale force and heavy seas but was reformed six hours later. The Ingham and two merchant vessels were missing. Difficulty was experienced on the 12th in keeping formation due to high winds and heavy seas. At 0900 Bibb received word that Ingham had the missing ships in company. On the 15th Bibb sighted the west-bound trans-Atlantic convoy and delivered five ships, Ingham having delivered two earlier on the same date. The Bibb returned to Reykjavik Harbor, Iceland on the 10th where she remained until the 25th.

On 25 November 1942, Bibb stood out of Reykjavik Harbor to screen in the van of west bound convoy ONS-148 consisting of eight ships. On 14 December two British escort vessels departed with some of the ships of the convoy for St. John's, Newfoundland. On the 5th a friendly plane was sighted. On the 6th Bibb, together with USS MacLeish (DD-220) was relieved of further escort duty and departed the convoy setting a course for Argentia, where she arrived on the 7th.

The Bibb stood out of Argentia Harbor on 7 December 1942 with MacLeish and USS Simpson (DD-221) and on the 11th made rendezvous with two Russian submarines, taking station on them to act as senior escort to Halifax, Nova Scotia. On the 12th she delivered the two submarines to a local Canadian escort unit off the Sambro Light vessel. She then proceeded with the two Navy destroyers to point "COLD" to rendezvous with two more Russian submarines. At 1015, Simpson was ordered to proceed to the rendezvous position at utmost speed. Seven hours later Bibb fired a barrage of depth charges on a sound contact and a few minutes later the McLeish reported a sound contact which was almost immediately lost. Being unable to re-establish the contact the vessels returned to their former course. At 0810 on the 13th they effected a rendezvous with the Simpson and the two Russian submarines and set a course for Halifax, delivering the submarines to the Canadian corvette HMCS Liscomb at noon on the 11th. The Bibb then set a course for Boston and moored at Pier 3, South Boston on the 15th. She remained in South Boston Navy Yard until 16 January 1943 undergoing repairs to her hull and machinery.

The Bibb remained at South Boston Navy Yard until 16 January 1943, and then stood out of Boston Harbor for Casco Bay, Maine, where on the 18th she went into battle practice with the cutter Comanche (WPG-76), making practice runs and simulated attacks on a U. S. submarine. On the 25th she proceeded to Argentia in company with USS SC-688 and USS SC-189. Investigating a radar contact astern on the 26th it was found to be the USS SC-689 which had separated from the company during the night. Later that afternoon Bibb dropped an eight charge barrage on a sound contact and whet appeared to be a torpedo wake. On the 28th she moored at Argentia. On the 31st she was underway escorting USS Saturn (AF-40) to St. John's Newfoundland, where she arrived at 0900. At 0946 she set a course to rendezvous with convoy SC-118.

On 1 February 1943, Bibb was underway from St. John's to join eastbound convoy SC-118 and reported to commander Task Unit 24.6.1 at 1005. On the 3rd information received was that there were some indications that enemy submarines were nearing the convoy. On the 14th Bibb obtained two high frequency direction finder bearings and began running them down. Eight hours later she dropped one embarrassing charge on a contact believed to be using "pillenwerfer" tactics, whereby a U-boat uses an underwater decoy to enable the submarine to escape. The 5th was spent covering the rear of the convoy. The next day, after an airplane had dropped a charge directly ahead, Bibb fired a Hedgehog barrage of depth charges on a sound contact. At 0250 on the 7th she sighted four star shells in the vicinity of the convoy and a vessel was reported torpedoed. Additional star shells were fired an hour later, indicating another torpedoing.

The star shells marked the successful attack by a U-boat. On 7 February 1943, the U-402 torpedoed SS Henry S. Mallory, a troop transport, bound for Iceland, after the Mallory straggled behind the convoy. The passengers panicked and leapt overboard into the 500 water. Those who did not make it into a life raft died from hypothermia. Lookouts aboard the Bibb sighted one of the Mallory's lifeboats at 1000 and, disobeying an order to return to the convoy, Bibb's commanding officer, CDR Roy Raney, ordered his cutter to begin rescuing survivors.

Many of Bibb's crewmen leapt into the water to assist the nearly frozen survivors, and the cutter Ingham assisted. One of Ingham's crew described the scene, a dreadfully common one along the North Atlantic that year:

"I never saw anything like it, wood all over the place and bodies in life jackets . never saw so many dead fellows in my whole life. Saw lots of mail bags, boxes, wood, wood splinters, empty life jackets, oars, upturned boats, empty life rafts, bodies, parts of bodies, clothes, cork, and a million other things that ships have in them. I hope I never see another drowned man as long as I live."

Rescue operations continued throughout forenoon, 202 survivors being taken from three lifeboats and numerous rafts. Six hours later while returning to the convoy Bibb picked up 33 survivors from the Greek SS Kalliopi. The Mallory had been torpedoed at 0600. No lifeboats were believed to have gotten away from the starboard side of the vessel, which had 499 persons on board. The torpedo struck in a hold occupied by Marines, which probably accounted for the relatively small number of Marines rescued. The occupants of the lifeboats were in excellent condition when brought aboard.

As raft after raft were brought alongside Bibb, it became necessary to leave dead bodies on the rafts, there being no time for the dead, when the living were clamoring to be saved. The rafts were of the doughnut type and, due to the height of the sea, it was rarely possible to see more than two or three rafts at a time. The temperature of the water was 50 degrees, so that the survivors who wore winter underclothing suffered less in the water. The next day another ship was reported torpedoed. The Bibb made a full pattern attack on a sound contact at 0440 and ten hours later dropped three full patterns on three separate contacts. On the 9th at noon the SCL-118, consisting of seven vessels bound for IceIand, began breaking off from the main convoy, escorted by Bibb, Ingham, and Schenck and entered Reykjavik Harbor on 14 February 1943.

On 15 February 1943, the Bibb departed for Hvalfjordur, Iceland. On the 17th she was underway to report to the escort commander of convoy HX-226. The Bibb joined the convoy on the 19th. On the next day she departed the convoy in company with Schenck and arrived at Hvalfjordur that evening, proceeding to Reykjavik next day.

On 25 February 1943, a convoy was formed with Bibb as escort commander, escorting seven vessels, with Babbitt in company. Next day, due to high seas, only four ships remained in the convoy while three had passed from the radar range and were scattered. One ship was reported later to have returned to Reykjavik safely. At the same time one of the convoyed vessels, SS Elizabeth Massey, gradually lost position due to heavy seas and light condition and begun to fall behind. The Babbitt was directed to join and try to bring her back to convoy. By the 28th the ships were widely scattered and seldom in contact with each other. At 1340 on that date the smoke of the main body of Convoy ONS-169 was sighted and two of the escorted vessels joined that convoy. The Bibb changed course to join convoy HX-227.

On 1 March 1943, Bibb was underway to join convoy HX-227, which she did at 1625. On the 2nd Bibb received a report from a ship with call letters KFFL that she had been torpedoed. A second message followed an hour later adding that the vessel was now on fire. An hour later Bibb was ordered to detach from the convoy and return to Iceland, with SS Toltec. The Bibb left Toltec at the swept channel buoy No. 4, Reykjavik, on the 3rd and proceeded out of the channel under orders to locate SS Collis P. Huntington, which was in the vicinity of Sangerdi Light and without navigational information on Iceland. The Bibb located Collis P. Huntington and led her safely to anchorage at Reykjavik. She then proceeded to Hvalfjordur, returning to Reykjavik on the 5th.

On 7 March 1943, Bibb got underway from Reykjavik to augment the escort of convoy SC-121. Next day she intercepted a message from SS Vojvoda Putnik stating that the vessel had been torpedoed and was sinking. The Bibb joined convoy SC-121 and maneuvered to a position near the cutter Spencer (WPG-36). An hour later Spencer sighted a submarine dead ahead on the surface at about 2,000 yards and she proceeded to attack. The next day at 0411 Bibb attacked a doubtful contact which was lost a few minutes later. Ten hours later word was received from a ship in the convoy that a torpedo had crossed her bow and five hours later Bibb, while sweeping 15 miles astern of the convoy, sighted a submarine fully surfaced about 14 miles away. The Bibb proceeded to the area and heard faint propeller beats but was unable to obtain a sound contact.

At 2152 word was received that a vessel in the convoy had been torpedoed. The Bibb proceeded to the area and screened SS Melrose Abbey, the convoy's appointed rescue ship, as she picked up survivors. Soon after midnight on the 10th two more vessels in the convoy were torpedoed. By 0305 the rescue ships had completed operations and were underway to rejoin the convoy. An hour and a half later Bibb sighted a raft close aboard with survivors, and three hours later dropped two charges on a doubtful sound contact, while HMS Dauphin screened the rescue ship. Twenty minutes later she sighted a life raft with three men on it end she directed the rescue ship to pick them up. The rescue ship failed to locate the raft and as the increasingly rough weather and impending snow squall made it imperative that the men not be lost sight of, Bibb rescued the three survivors from SS Coulmore.

A few minutes later another raft was sighted dead ahead and two survivors of SS Bonneville were taken aboard. The Bibb now maneuvered near Coulmore and found her in good condition and floating on an even keel, even with the torpedo hole in her bow. There were no persons aboard. Four hours later the Bibb proceeded to the assistance of SS Rosewood, reported sinking, but could not locate her in the darkness and storm. The next day, the 11th, Bibb sighted a ship on the horizon and proceeded toward it. It turned out to be the stern of a torpedoed tanker, with no signs of life on board, though one boat and one raft remained on board. The Bibb began searching for survivors and lookouts sighted large quantities of debris, including a swamped lifeboat. Later she returned to the wreck and left it in a sinking condition from gun fire and depth charges. The next day she sighted the bow of the tanker and left it in sinking condition also. Several hours later she again encountered the abandoned Coulmore. Soon afterwards she got underway to join Trillium and relieved her of escort of SS Empire Bunting. On the 13th the Bibb set a course for Reykjavik and anchored there on the 25th, later that day proceeding to Hvalfjordur.

The Bibb left Hvalfjordur for Reykjavik on 18 March 1943 and stood out to sea en route to join Iceland bound convoy HXL-229A. The cutter reported to the escort commander on the 20th and was assigned a station. That afternoon she had an underwater sound contact and made an embarrassing depth charge attack 5,000 yards ahead of the convoy with no visible damage. On the 22nd she broke off from convoy HXL-229A and began screening ahead of convoy HXL-229. Entering Reykjavik on the 23rd she proceeded to Hvalfjordur where she entered a floating drydock on the 27th and remained there until the 29th.

On 3 April 1943 Bibb left for Reykjavik and later got underway standing out of the harbor to form convoy ONJ-176, consisting of three vessels with USS Symbol (AM-123) in company as escort. Next day she identified convoy ON-176 and delivered the section from Iceland. Then she proceeded towards Iceland and arrived at Reykjavik on the afternoon of the 5th.

On 6 April 1943 Bibb got underway in company with USS Vulcan (AR-5) and Ingham and on the 8th moored at the naval anchorage at Moville, Ireland. She remained there only seven hours and at 1729 stood out of Loch Foyle in company with Ingham and Vulcan for a trip direct to Norfolk, Virginia. The next day she had a sound contact and carried out an embarrassing attack, dropping two depth charges. The contact was evaluated as probably non-submarine. That evening Ingham made an embarrassing attack on what was reported to be a periscope. The three vessels arrived off the entrance to Chesapeake Bay on the 17th. On the 18th Bibb dropped the escort of Vulcan and stood out of the swept channel in company with Ingham en route Boston, where she arrived on the 19th for ten days availability. On the 30th she departed Boston for Casco Bay, Maine.

On 9 May, 1943 Bibb proceeded to New York and anchored in Sandy Hook Bay on the 13th in company with Task Force 66 consisting of Bibb, as flagship, Ingham and seven Navy destroyers. On the 14th the task force got under way escorting convoy UGA-8A for Casablanca. Sound contacts were attacked that day and the next and on the 16th four more destroyers of Task Group 21.3 joined the escort group. On the 26th the escort carrier USS Card (CVE-11) reported a suspected submarine ten miles ahead. Ten other destroyers dropped charges on doubtful contacts and Bibb made an embarrassing attack on a contact at 600 yards at 1430. A submarine periscope was reported close aboard. The Bibb regained contact and slowed for a Hedgehog attack. At the same time she opened fire with her 20 mm cannons on a periscope reported ahead. Then she increased to full speed and dropped a full pattern of depth charges. Soon after, a streak of heavy oil, 30 yards long, was sighted. The Bibb was unable to regain contact and rejoined the convoy. On the 31st, the Casablanca section of the convoy, consisting of 27 ships, began breaking off. On 2 June 1943, Bibb moored in Delpit Basin, Casablanca.

The Bibb was underway again on 9 June 1943 as flagship of Task Force 66 in company with Ingham and six Navy destroyers and six French escort vessels. The Casablanca section started joining the main convoy from Mediterranean ports. On the 14th several high frequency direction finder bearings were reported and on the 19th the convoy made an emergency turn on a contact which later proved to be non-submarine. Another emergency turn was made on the 21st on a radar contact at 300 yards and at 0512 Bibb dropped one depth charge on an underwater sound contact that disappeared at 700 yards. The New York section of the convoy began breaking off on the 26th, with Ingham, as senior escort with four Navy destroyers, and the rest of the convoy stood into Chesapeake Bay entrance. On the 27th Bibb was en route to New York where she anchored in Gravesend Bay, moving over to Brooklyn on the 28th to moor.

Standing down New York Harbor on 8 July 1943, in company with Task Force 63, consisting of four Navy destroyers, Bibb reported at Buoy 'BW' and the force stood out to sea on the 9th, covering a section of convoy UGS-12 to Norfolk. That afternoon Bibb attacked a sound contact with a full nine-charge pattern and some heavy oil and light bits of debris resulted. A few minutes later a vessel in the convoy fired a machine gun at a reported visual contact. The Bibb picked up oil samples and ordering USS Portent (AM-106) to remain in the vicinity, rejoined the convoy. Oil was still rising in the area. The Portent made a Hedgehog attack and dropped five depth charges on a sound contact one mile north of Bibb's attack.

Mooring at Norfolk on the 11th three more destroyers reported to the task force and they departed the same day to escort convoy UGS-12 to North Africa ports. On the 13th Task Group 21.13 joined, departing the next day. On the 15th USS Edwards (DD-619) departed for Bermuda, her sound gear inoperative. On the 21st Portent stood by to cover one of the convoy vessels that had steering trouble. On the 22nd Bibb had a sound contact and fired a pattern of nine depth charges with no apparent results. Next day she fired her port K-guns on a contact with negative results. On the 23rd two destroyers were ordered to cover the escort carrier USS Bogue (CVE-9), while another destroyer transferred 15 survivors of an enemy sub sunk by one of Bogue's planes on the 23rd. On the 28th the main convoy was turned over to the British escort and the Casablanca section began breaking off and anchored at the breakwater at 1240. Three hours later Bibb stood into the harbor and moored, remaining there until the 31st.

The Bibb remained moored at Casablanca until 6 August 1943 and then stood out of the harbor, forming Task Force 63 consisting of Ingham and five destroyers en route to Gibraltar, where they arrived on the 7th. On the 8th she stood out of Gibraltar Harbor in command of Task Force to meet convoy GUS-11 at the straits. On the 9th the Casablanca section, escorted by two destroyers, joined the main convoy. On the 13th Bogue reported an attack by her aircraft four miles astern of the convoy and two destroyers were detached to assist the plane, who rejoined later reporting negative results. On the 16th Bibb attacked a doubtful sound contact with three starboard throwers without results. On the 18th Portent made a depth charge attack on the starboard quarter of the convoy. Next day the Bibb fired her starboard thrower in an embarrassing attack on what was probably a non-submarine. On the 24th, the New York section of 19 ships detached with four escorts. On the 25th a plane reported sighting a submarine diving 14 miles from the convoy and the Bibb increased speed to search the area. She had a sound contact at 900 yards and dropped a full pattern with negative results. On the 26th the Delaware section of the convoy departed under escort of Ingham and USS Threat (AM-124) and at 0935 the lead ships were ordered to follow Bibb to the swept channel of New York harbor. On the 27th Bibb departed for Boston and moored at the South Boston Navy Yard on the 28th.

The Bibb , with Ingham , departed Boston on 8 September 1943, for area "R" off Block Island Sound for anti-submarine warfare practice, which consisted of simulated depth charging and head throw weapon runs on a submerged U.S. submarine and also acted as target for PT boats in combined destroyer and PTB exercises. On the 11th she stood down the Block Island swept channel for Norfolk and moored at the Naval Operating Base on the 12th. On the 14th she stood out of Norfolk preparatory to acting as escort commander of convoy UGS-18 en route to North African and Mediterranean ports. Task Force 63 also included Ingham and seven destroyers. When completed on the 15th the convoy formation consisted of 12 columns of ships. On the 20th Bibb investigated a sound contact, which proved to be non-submarine and was probably due to fish. A fire which broke out on Bibb on the 21st proved to be rags burning in a bucket. On the 27th USS Chase (DE-158) departed for Gibraltar and on the 2nd the main convoy stood up the main channel through Gibraltar straits. On the same day two vessels broke off for Europe Point and the convoy was joined by the Gibraltar section. British ships took over escorting the convoy on the 3rd and Bibb with four Navy destroyers proceeded toward Casablanca where they arrived on the 14th.

On 7 October 1943, Bibb with the four Navy destroyers departed Casablanca for Gibraltar and on the 9th began escorting the Gibraltar section of convoy GUS-17. Later on the same day Ingham and a destroyer, joined with the Casablanca section and two PC escorts later departed for Casablanca with four vessels from the main convoy. The passage across the Atlantic continued without incident. On 25 October the New York and Delaware sections broke off, escorted six vessels and the others continued to Norfolk. On the 26th, the escort duty completed, Bibb proceeded to South Boston Navy Yard Annex, mooring there on the 28th and remaining through the balance of October.

The Bibb departed Boston on 8 November 1943 in company with Ingham en route San Juan, Puerto Rico, for duty with Task Group 26.4 and arrived there on the 13th. On the 17th Bibb was patrolling the southeast entrance to Vieques Sound, being relieved by submarine chasers and then escorted the French aircraft carrier Bearn departing San Juan on the 27th. She was relieved on 30 November by submarine chasers and arrived at Guantanamo Bay on 1 December 1943.

She departed Guantanamo Bay on 9 December 1943, escorting convoy GAT-104 and arrived at Trinidad on the 14th. Leaving Trinidad on 20 December, escorting convoy TAG-104, Bibb arrived at Guantanamo Bay on the 25th. The Bibb departed Guantanamo Bay on 29 December 1943, escorting convoy GAT-108 and arrived at Trinidad 3 January 1944. On January 6th she left Port of Spain, Trinidad, escorting U. S. Army Transport S-17 to San Juan. She arrived at San Juan on 7 January 1944 and departed on the 8th for Guantanamo Bay where she arrived on the 9th. Departing the same day for Trinidad, she arrived at her destination and on the 11th left Trinidad for Guantanamo Bay, arriving on the 19th. Departing Guantanamo on the 23rd she arrived at Norfolk on the 26 January 1944.

The Bibb was moored at St. Helena Navy Yard in Berkley, Virginia, until 10 February 1944 undergoing overhaul. On the 11th she was underway proceeding to Norfolk and on the 12th was standing down Hampton Roads, anchoring in Lynnhaven Roads. On the 13th she stood down Chesapeake Bay swept channel and maneuvered while awaiting the formation of the convoy. The commander of Task Force 66 was in the Bibb, while ComCortDiv 45, consisted of six Coast Guard-manned destroyer escorts and one Navy-manned destroyer escort. The Task Force was escorting convoy UGS-33, consisting of 78 merchant vessels to North African ports and also USS Brant (ARS-32) and six LCIs to the Azores. On 25 February the convoy dispersed in heavy weather with four escorts rounding up the stragglers. On the 17th a Navy seaman was transferred by pulling boat from one of the convoyed vessels to the Bibb for an appendectomy. On the 21st a doctor from Babbitt was transferred to Bibb to treat that ship's doctor who had been stricken with pneumonia. On the 27th friendly aircraft were sighted screening the convoy. By March 1st the Azores group had departed and on the same day the Casablanca section of the convoy, consisting of seven merchant vessels and USS Cossatot (AO-77), with three escorts detached. On March 2nd four merchant vessels detached for Gibraltar and Task Force 66 was relieved of escorting the convoy by a British task force. Task Force 66 relieved course and began standing up the Straits of Gibraltar and on the 3rd entered Casablanca Harbor.

On 7 March 1944, Bibb departed Casablanca with Task Force 66 and on the 8th relieved the senior British escort in HMS Bittersweet of convoy GUS-32. On the same day eight merchant vessels with the oiler Cossatot, escorted by Coast Guard manned destroyer escorts USS Vance (DE-387) and USS Chambers (DE-391), joined the convoy. At the same time eight merchant vessels under escort of PC vessels were detached for Casablanca, making the total number of ships in the convoy 82, plus the oiler. On the 12th three more merchant vessels joined. On the 16th all electric power on Bibb failed, the rudder jammed and the main turbines stopped. The vessel fell off to northward and commenced drifting toward the convoy. Auxiliary diesel power for radio and lighting systems was cut in and the cutter shifted to hand steering. The breakdown had been caused by the tripping of circuit breakers on the main switchboard and within 35 minutes Bibb had again shifted to power steering.

On the 20th a Liberator was sighted screening the convoy. The barometer dropped and the winds rose with a number five sea. Because of the weather zigzagging was discontinued. One merchant vessel was detached for St. John's. On the 22nd the Norfolk section of the convoy was detached, escorted by four destroyer escorts, and a little later the Delaware section left under escort of two destroyer escorts. On the 23rd the convoy entered New York Harbor and Bibb moored at Brooklyn Navy Yard with availability expiring April 2nd.

The Bibb departed Brooklyn for Casco Bay, Maine, on 3 April and on the 5th began exercises which continued through the 7th. Standing out of Casco Bay on that day, she moored at Naval Operating Base, Norfolk, on the 9th, moving to Lynnhaven Roads on the 12th. On the 13th she stood down the Norfolk swept channel and than reversed courses and stood up to the Naval Operating Bases for imperative repairs. Later in the day she took station "one" in convoy UGS-39 forming off Norfolk swept chanced as flagship of Task Force 60, with six Coast Guard-manned, and six Navy-manned destroyer escorts. One of the destroyer escorts was damaged in collision and returned to Norfolk Navy Yard for repair. The convoy consisted of 102 merchant ships. On the 14th three more destroyer escorts joined the task force. On the 16th two YMs detached for Bermuda. On the 20th a destroyer escort reported picking up Morse Code signals on their underwater sound gear, and an hour later Bibb picked up the same signals. Ten minutes later escort vessels of the inner screen dropped one depth charge each, followed at short intervals by two more sets of charges, by each escort vessel of the inner screen. Two hours later a white wake was sighted passing astern from port to starboard and Bibb maneuvered on various courses at 15 knots for a sound contact, resuming normal patrol speed an hour later.

On the 23rd the Bibb sounded the submarine alarm on receiving a sound contact and dropped one depth charge 600 yards ahead of one of the convoy columns. The contact was analyzed as doubtful. One merchant vessel detached for the Azores. On the 28th four merchant vessels and one destroyer detached, the vessels to be escorted to Oran by a British task force. An hour later three merchant vessels detached for Casablanca under escort of two USPC vessels and a French destroyer. Another merchant vessel from Casablanca joined the convoy. On the 29th a general alarm was sounded on receiving a radar contact at a range of 11 miles, thought to be a possible aircraft. Shortly afterwards the convoy was secured from general quarters as the contact proved to be negative. An hour later a Netherlands war vessel joined the task force as an anti-aircraft ship. On the 30th Cossatot and four escorts detached for Oran and two destroyer escorts joined the task force. On 1 May seven merchant vessels were detached under escort of a destroyer escort for Algiers. On the 2nd five merchant vessels joined the convoy from Algerian ports. On the 3rd the convoy commenced standing up the Tunisian War Channel and six hours later Task Force 60 was relieved of convoy UGS-39 by HMS Dart at the entrance to Bizerte swept channel. The Bibb remained moored at Bizerte until 11 May 1944, and then was underway as flagship of Task Force 60 relieving HMS Pheasant of convoy GUS-39 in the vicinity of Bizerte swept channel.

On the 12th four merchant vessels were detached for Bone, Algeria, while three merchant vessels from that port joined. On the 13th, sixteen merchant vessels detached for Algiers while 23 merchant vessels joined from that port. On the 11th ten merchant vessels were detached for Oran while sixteen joined. On the 15th a destroyer escort fired across the bow of a fishing boat to keep it clear of the convoy after the fisherman had refused to follow orders. Eight merchant vessels were detached for Gibraltar on the 15th. Next day six merchant vessels detached for Casablanca while eight joined. One convoyed vessel detached for Horta, Azores on the 20th and two joined. On the 27th two merchant vessels were detached for New York. On the 28 May 37 ships detached for Hampton Roads. The New York section, with the commander Task Force 60 in Bibb, now consisted of 148 ships in 8 columns. The convoy arrived at New York on the 30th and Bibb moored at Brooklyn Navy Yard with an availability period until 10 June 1944.

On 4 June 1944, CDR H. T. Diehl, USCG, relieved CDR C .A. Anderson, USCG, as commanding officer of Bibb. On the 10th the cutter stood out for Casco Bay, Maine, where she held exercises and drills until the 18th, when she departed for Hampton Roads. On the 24th she was underway out of the swept channel with Task Force 60, consisting of six Coast Guard-manned destroyer escorts and six Navy destroyer escorts, the escort oiler USS Mattaponi (AO-41) and two French escorts, escorting convoy UGS-46 to North African ports. The convoy consisted of 69 merchant ships, 19 LSTs and one British aircraft carrier. On the 28th one merchant vessel returned to Norfolk unescorted due to machinery failure. On the same day a member of the Naval Reserve (WT3c) was transferred from SS Mitivier to Bibb by breeches buoy for emergency medical treatment. The broken blower crankshaft of one of the merchant vessels in convoy was repaired on Bibb and transferred to it by breeches buoy.

On 4 July 1944 there were detachments from the convoy for Horta, Azores and for Casablanca on the 9th and 11th. Vessels joined the convoy at Gibraltar on the 10th. Various members of the Task Force departed as escorts for detachments and others joined for temporary duty. A warning of the presence of unidentified aircraft was received on the 12th. At 0115 Bibb, at general quarters, began making smoke to cover sector one of the convoy. At 0330 various escorts reported bandit planes closing over the convoy. All escorts were given permission to open fire at will on unidentified aircraft. At 0336 escorts on the convoy's port side began firing and two minutes later escorts on the starboard side began to open fire. The planes drew away at 0440, the escorts ceased firing, and at 0448 the all clear was sounded and Bibb, ceasing to make smoke, was secured from general quarters. The attack took place at 36: 23' N x 00: 26.5' E. No planes came within range of Bibb during the entire action. Much credit was given to the smoke screen for warding off possible air torpedo attacks. The smoke hung low, never rising above 100 feet, the wind was steady and moderate and from a most favorable position dead ahead of the convoy. The night was dark throughout the action, though the moon was bright and cast a bright path. The convoy proceeded toward Bizerte, where, on the 18th, the Bibb was relieved as escort flagship by HMS Pheasant and moored until the 20th.

The Bibb departed for gunnery exercises on 20 July 1944 and, having completed these, got underway to take station one of Task Force 60, escorting convoy GUS-46. At 1521 she relieved HMS Fleetwood as Task Force Commander. Two merchant ships joined on the 21st six detached and six joined on the 22nd and nine detached and seven joined on the 23rd. Also on that day two British escorts detached. The convoy entered the Straits of Gibraltar on the 24th as six merchant vessels detached and seven joined the convoy. Another joined on the 29th. On August 6th Bibb expended 11 depth charges on a sound contact which was later evaluated as non-submarine. The convoy began break-off operations on the 7th. Thirteen merchant ships under escort of Bibb and ComCorDiv 45, consisting of six Coast Guard-manned destroyer escorts, proceeded to New York, while the remainder, under the Navy manned-destroyer escorts of ComCorDiv 67, detached for New York. The Bibb was relieved of escort duty on 8 August and proceeded independently to the Brooklyn Navy Yard and moored. On the 19th she proceeded to Casco Bay, Maine, where she engaged in various drills and exercises until tie 28th. Then she departed for Norfolk and moored there for the rest of August.

On 2 September 1944, Bibb stood down Chesapeake Bay channel and departed for North African ports as flagship of Task Force 60, escorting, convoy UGS-53. The USS Johnson (DE-683) detached temporarily from the task force on the same day and proceeded to Bermuda for repairs, rejoining on the 6th. Meanwhile, one merchant had joined the convoy and another had detached for Bermuda on the 5th. Between the 8th and 12th, Bibb took aboard crew members from three merchant vessels in convoy for medical treatment. On the 17th three merchant vessels detached for Casablanca and, on the 18th, one detached for Gibraltar and two merchant ships and three British submarines joined the convoy. On the 19th and 20th a number of ships were detached for Oran and Algiers, others joining from those ports. Three destroyer escorts left to escort three of these detached ships, two of the escorts returning on the 20th and 21st. The other merchant ships who detached proceeded in groups, without escorts from the task force. On the 22nd, two merchant vessels joined from Bone, Algeria. On the 22nd Task Force 60 was relieved of escort duty by British vessels and Bibb stood into Bizerte swept channel and moored.

The Bibb departed from Bizerte on 23 September 1944, and was joined by Escort Divisions 45 and 67, forming Task Force 60. She anchored in Palermo outer harbor, moving next morning to the breakwater. On the 27th she stood out of Palermo and on the 28th, following gunnery and tactical exercises, the task force relieved HMS Shield as escort for convoy GUS-53. On the 30th, two merchant ships detached and 10 joined from Algiers. On 1 October the convoy was augmented by 30 merchant ships and three Navy vessels. Four merchant ships were detached for Gibraltar and one joined just before the convoy changed course to stand through the Straits. Three merchant ships joined the convoy on the 3rd and four were detached for Casablanca three more joined on the 7th. From time to time on the voyage Bibb rendered medical assistance to crew members and to one German prisoner of war aboard the various convoyed ships. On the 13th the commander of Task Force 60 was transferred aboard USS Merrill (DE-392) relieving the Bibb as flagship. The Bibb assumed a new patrol station until the 15th, when she departed independently for Charleston, South Carolina. She arrived on the 17th, remaining there for the rest of October.

During November 1944 through 29 January 1945, Bibb remained at the Charleston Navy Yard, undergoing conversion to an AGC [Amphibious Command & Control] vessel, her designation being then changed to WAGC-31. A training program for the personnel was in progress during this time. On 29 and 30 January 1945 she was depermed, degaussed and tested. Taking on ammunition at the Navy Yard until the 4th of February, when she departed for Hampton Roads, Virginia. On the 7th she stood up Chesapeake Bay and carried out various exercises and then proceeded to Norfolk, mooring at the Navy Yard there on 12 February 1945. Escorted by USS Barry (APD-29) Bibb departed Norfolk on the 15th of February and arrived at Panama on the 22nd. She passed through to canal and departed Balboa on the 23rd for Pearl Harbor. On the 27th she went to the assistance of USS Narragansett (ATF-88) and floating drydock ARDC-12. Sighting Narragansett 15 miles distant, Bibb came alongside and then proceeded to the floating drydock, two and one-half miles away, and took her in tow. On 1 March 1945 she released the drydock to Tug ATA-225 and proceeded to Manzanillo, Mexico. She departed Manzanillo on the 3rd and reached Pearl Harbor on the 11th. The Bibb departed Pearl Harbor on 25 March and arrived at Eniwetok on 3 April 1945. Departing for Palau on the 5th her destination was changed for Ulithi Islands on the 9th and she arrived there next day. On 14 April she departed for Guam where she arrived on the 15th and on the 19th rendezvoused with USS Aaron Ward (DD-132) which acted as her escort to Okinawa. She anchored at Kerama Retto, Okinawa on 23 April.

When an enemy aircraft was sighted coming in from the northwest on 28 April 1945 Bibb commenced firing. The plane disappeared in a smoke screen. Again on the 29th Bibb opened fire on an enemy aircraft identified as a Japanese bomber. Three ships in the area fired at the aircraft which was knocked down about 1,000 yards to the north of Bibb. Early on the 30th and again on the 6th of May Bibb fired on enemy aircraft. All these planes were suicide planes which chose medium sized and large ships at anchor as their targets, and used various tactics, some attacking at night, some at dusk and others during daylight. All came in at low altitude and seemed to approach a target from the stern, going into a steep glide shout 800 yards on the quarter of their target. On 28 April some of these planes, undetected and unreported by any unit, approached the southern anchorage, flying at high speed about 100 feet above the water. Very few ships were able to fire on it as it passed. The plane crashed into the starboard side of USS Pinkney (APH-2), a transport for the wounded. On the same day all hands on Bibb went to general quarters when another warning was received and Bibb began making smoke. Then she began firing on an apparent target on the port beam, but was stopped a minute later because the target could be neither seen nor heard. On 1 May a radar picket at 0340 reported a "bogey" coming in 45 miles from Bibb's position. Fourteen minutes later a bogey consisting of probably two planes at low altitude, was reported as closing rapidly.

The Bibb commenced making smoke at 0354, even before SOPA ordered it 14 minutes later. A minute later at 0359 an enemy aircraft was sighted at a range of about 5,000 yards and about 1,000 feet in altitude. It was a clear night with a bright, full moon which made visibility very good. The plane had just flown over Tokashika Shima and was approaching the southern anchorage near Bibb. Various vessels near the path of the plane opened fire. The plane was in a slight glide, losing altitude, apparently picking out one of the ships in the anchorage as a suicide crash target. The Bibb's gun fired one round at the target when it was dead astern but did not fire again because the crew had lost sight of the target. Just as the plane entered its steep glide, preparing to crash dive, two of Bibb's guns picked up the target and began firing. A few seconds later the plane crashed in to the USS Terror (CM-5) starboard amidships.

On the morning of 6 May 1945, at 0846, SOPA warned that bogeys as well as many friendly planes were within four miles. Hellcat fighters were being vectored to intercept the raid. Two minutes later lookouts on Bibb sighted one aircraft identified as an Aichi D4A "Val" dive-bomber at a range of 8,000 yards appearing just over Hokaji Island, at an altitude of about 1,000 feet. The 5" battery expended seven rounds. The target was taken under fire by vessels in the anchorage but apparently escaped, damaged, and disappeared flying north toward Geruma Shima. Another Val, taken under fire by naval units, westward of Geruma Shim was brought down. Ten minutes later a kawasaki Ki-61 "Tony" fighter aircraft was sighted at about 5,000 yards, and Bibb commenced firing, but the firing was checked as the bearing became foul. The Tony crash dived into the stern of the USS St. George (AV-16) causing only superficial damage. No other enemy action took place in Bibb's vicinity during the rest of May and she remained anchored, continuing as flagship of COMINPAC.

On 14 June 1945 Bibb stood out of Kerama Retto, in company with two other Navy vessels, and escorted by three destroyers, to ride out a reported storm at sea. She returned to Kerama Retto, next morning and remained anchored there for the balance of June. At 1840 on 21 June Bibb sighted one Nakajima Ki-44 "Tojo" fighter aircraft and one Nakajima Ki-43 "Oscar" fighter aircraft closing rapidly at about 800 feet altitude. The Tojo split off, passing Bibb's starboard beam by 250 yards, and crash dived into the starboard side of USS Curtiss (AV-4). The Oscar then took a course northward, climbed to about 1,000 feet, reversed course and began maneuvering for a crash dive, with her probable target Bibb, YMS-331, or USS Kenneth Whiting (AVP-14) all within close range of each other. The Bibb opened fire on the Oscar before it began reversing and maintained fire until it was in the last phase of the crash dive. The plane received several visible hits on the left wing, close to the fuselage at the peak of the dive and began trailing black smoke, crashing into the water near the Kenneth Whiting. The Bibb's fire was thought to be directly responsible for causing the attack to be frustrated and the plane splashing harmlessly into the water.

The Bibb continued at anchor in Kerama Retto until 7 July 1945 when she proceeded to Buckner Bay, where she anchored remaining through the 16th. On the 17th she departed in convoy to a clear area, when a typhoon was expected to strike. The Bibb returned on the 21st and proceeded to Buckner Bay, where she remained at anchor during the balance of July. The Bibb remained at anchor in Buckner Bay, Okinawa, during August, 1945, as flagship for Commander, Mine Craft, Pacific Fleet.

On 10 September 1945, the Commander, Mine Craft, shifted his flag to Terror, and the Bibb became relief flagship for RADM Arthur D. Struble, USN, newly appointed Commander, Mine Craft. On the 16th she got underway in the van of a number of Navy craft who stood out of Buckner Bay and proceeded independently in accordance with the typhoon plan. She returned to Buckner Bay on the 18th and anchored, acting as supply and provision ship for YMS type of vessels. On 28 September Bibb again departed Buckner Bay. She remained underway except for three days, until 11 October, carrying out typhoon plan X-RAY. On the 11th she anchored in Buckner Bay and acted as flagship for Task Group 52.9 until 1 December 1945, when she departed for the United States.

The Bibb then returned to Coast Guard control after she was converted back to her cutter configuration at the Navy Yard in Charleston. Once the conversion was completed she was again classified as WPG-31. During the conversion, her wartime armament was removed, structural modifications were made, and towing equipment was installed, preparatory to resuming her peacetime Coast Guard duties. With these modifications, she was well suited to assume the additional tasks to be performed on weather patrols as well as routing search and rescue work. The weather patrols (later termed "ocean station patrols") consisted of sailing for three weeks on one of four assigned stations in the North Atlantic, and each cutter assigned performed four or five such patrols each year. Their primary task was to report meteorological information, which was used in weather forecasts for the burgeoning trans-Atlantic commercial air traffic as well as for surface vessels. The ocean station vessels also provided communications and navigation assistance and were always standing by for and search and rescue emergencies. After the conversion was completed, she was ordered to Boston, which remained her home port through October of 1973.

Other duties besides conducting weather patrols included search and rescue standby and other patrols for the First Coast Guard District, making reserve training cruises, and occasional search and rescue details at Bermuda and Argentia. She participated in refresher training under the Fleet Training Group at Guantanamo Bay every two years to maintain her military readiness. It was a combination ocean station patrol and search and rescue operation that brought Bibb and her crew international recognition when, while operating on Ocean Station Charlie on 14 October 1947, the transoceanic airliner Bermuda Sky Queen was forced to make a landing during a gale with high winds and in rough seas when the flying boat ran low on fuel.

The Bibb, under the command of CAPT Paul D. Cronk, had picked up an aircraft on radar heading west at 0232 (GCT) on 14 October 1947. It was the Boeing 314 flying boat Bermuda Sky Queen (NC-18612), on a trans-Atlantic flight from Foynes, Ireland to Gander, Newfoundland with 62 passengers and 7 crew on board. After flying beyond Bibb, the pilot of the flying boat, Captain Charles M. Martin, decided to return to the cutter to attempt an emergency landing because unexpectedly strong head winds had caused the aircraft to consume too much fuel for them to make landfall safely. After establishing communications with Bibb, Martin made a successful landing in the 30-foot seas at 1004 (GCT) near the cutter. After maneuvering close to the Bibb to secure a mooring line, the flying boat lost control and collided with the cutter's hull, damaging the nose of the aircraft as well as both wings and their attached floats.

With the waves cresting at 30 feet and the cutter rolling 30 to 35 degrees, getting the passengers and crew of the Bermuda Sky Queen aboard Bibb proved to be a tremendous challenge. Attempting various methods, including using a pulling boat and various rubber rafts from both the cutter and the flying boat, three passengers of the latter volunteered, only two hours before sunset, to attempt to make it to the cutter using one of the flying boat's small rafts. The Bibb laid down an oil slick downwind of the Bermuda Sky Queen prior to crossing her bow to create a lee for the three men. They then began paddling towards the cutter, but the seas were too great. As they cleared the flying boat, Bibb drifted as close a practicable and threw lines to the men, bringing them safely aboard. This method would prove impossible for the women and children on board, so the cutter launched her motor surfboat that towed a 15-man raft to the Queen.

Using that raft as a bridge between the flying boat and the motor surf boat, the Coast Guardsmen managed to save 28 persons in three trips and get them back to Bibb. On the fourth trip, the surfboat, taking on water after being battered against the hull of Bibb, began to sink. Fortunately Bibb was able to pull all 21 survivors and Coast Guardsmen on board the surfboat and in the raft to safety, leaving 22 on board the Queen. One more attempt was made with a pulling boat that night, but again the rough seas and darkness prevented their success and captains Cronk and Martin agreed to wait until the next morning to save the remaining passengers and crew.

The following morning the seas had abated somewhat and Cronk ordered a rescue attempt with his personal gig. After one successful trip, the gig's engine broke down and the Coast Guardsmen once again launched a pulling boat. The pulling boat successfully rescued the remaining passengers and crew and the captain's gig finally got its engine going again and both boats were then brought back aboard Bibb. Cronk and Martin agreed that it was impossible to tow the Queen to safety and Cronk then ordered her sunk as a hazard to navigation. Obtaining permission to leave the ocean station and return to Boston with all of the souls who had been on board the Queen, the cutter arrived to a hero's welcome. The rescue demonstrated the utility and importance of the ocean station program and historian Robert E. Johnson noted that "The Bermuda Sky Queen incident must rank with the Coast Guard's outstanding rescue feats."

In September of 1948 Bibb steamed at full speed into forty foot seas to save 40 men and a dog from the sinking Portuguese fishing schooner Gaspar some 300 miles off Newfoundland. She departed Boston on 20 December 1947, en route to Ocean Station Charlie via Argentia, relieving CGC Androscoggin (WPG-68) on 26 December 1947. She departed Charlie upon relief by Duane on 16 January 1948. She arrived Argentia on 19 January and stood by the hull of the Army transport Joseph V. Connolly and assisted in towing her to port. The tow was taken over by the commercial tug Curb and Bibb then proceeded to Boston.

During May-June 1949 she served on Ocean Station Able. In August, 1949 she served on Ocean Station Dog. The next year, in June-July, she served on Ocean Station How and in July of 1950 she and her sister Treasury-class cutters had Mark 10 projectors installed. In October of 1950 she served on Ocean Station Dog and in December it was duty on Ocean Station Easy.

On 27 February 1952 Bibb sustained minor damage when a Navy tug collided with her while maneuvering in Narragansett Bay. Her next ocean station assignment was during March-April 1952 when the Bibb served on Ocean Station Charlie and then in November-December 1952 she served on Ocean Station Echo. In February 1953 she served on Ocean Station Coca and in July it was duty on Ocean Station Delta. In March-April 1954 she served on Ocean Station Bravo. In March-April 1956 she served on Ocean Station Bravo again and in June 1956 she served on Ocean Station Charlie. In August 1956 Bibb was on Ocean Station Delta and served there again in December of 1956.

See also

The first ship named in honor of Rear Admiral Aaron Ward, USS Aaron Ward (DD-132) was a Wickes-class destroyer in service with the United States Navy. In 1940, she was transferred to the Royal Navy and renamed HMS Castleton.

USS Spangenberg (DE/DER-223), a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Gunner's Mate Kenneth J. Spangenberg (1922-1942), who died as a result of wounds suffered during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, while serving aboard the heavy cruiser San Francisco  (CA-38) . He was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross.

USS O'Toole (DE-527) was an Evarts-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy during World War II. She served in the North Atlantic ocean protecting convoys and other ships from German U-boats and aircraft. She also performed escort and anti-submarine operations before returning home at the end of the conflict.

USS Fessenden (DE-142/DER-142) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and provided destroyer escort protection against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys.

USS Sturtevant (DE-239) was an Edsall class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 and from 1951 to 1960. She was scrapped in 1973.

USS Otterstetter (DE-244) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean the Pacific Ocean and provided destroyer escort protection against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys.

USS Joyce (DE-317) was a US Coast Guard - manned Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and provided destroyer escort protection against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys.

USS Kirkpatrick (DE-318) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean the Pacific Ocean and provided destroyer escort protection against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys. Post-war, she was converted to a radar picket ship to support the DEW Line.

USS Lowe (DE-325) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 and from 1955 to 1968. Between 1951 and 1954 she was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard as USCGC Lowe (WDE-425). She was scrapped in 1969.

USS Price (DE-332) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1947 and from 1956 to 1960. She was scrapped in 1975.

USS Strickland (DE-333) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946 and from 1952 to 1959. She was sold for scrapping in 1974.

USS Ramsden (DE-382) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and provided destroyer escort protection against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys. Post-war, she performed other tasks with the U.S. Coast Guard and with the U.S. Navy as a radar picket ship.

USS Rhodes (DE-384) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946 and from 1955 to 1963. She was scrapped in 1975.

USS Chambers (DE-391) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 and from 1955 to 1960. From 1952 to 1954, she was loaned to the United States Coast Guard where she served as USCGC Chambers (WDE-491). She was finally scrapped in 1975.

USS Merrill (DE-392) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946. She was sold for scrapping in 1974.

USS Raymond (DE-341) was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The purpose of the destroyer escort was primarily to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Post-war, she returned home proudly with five battle stars to her credit, including credit for her striking a Japanese cruiser with her 5-inch (127 mm) guns during the Battle off Samar. The destroyer escort was named for Reginald Marbury Raymond, who was killed by enemy gunfire on 30 April 1943 aboard USS Scorpion .

USS Maurice J. Manuel (DE-351) was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket.

USS Lloyd E. Acree (DE-356) was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket.

USS Johnnie Hutchins (DE-360) was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. She served her nation in the Pacific Ocean, and, post-war, she returned home proudly with a Navy Unit Commendation awarded to her for her battle with Japanese midget submarines on 9 August 1945.

USS Runels (DE-793/APD-85) was a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, in service from 1944 to 1947. She was finally sold for scrap in 1961.

History of the chamber movement

Moving beyond individual interests to that of a collective group, the establishment of chambers provided merchants, traders, craftsmen and industrialists a public forum to discuss issues facing them as a business community. This representation of common interests became, and remains, the foundation of chambers of commerce worldwide.

Gaining acceptance from public authorities also helped the chamber cause. Public authorities rapidly established close dialogue with chambers, seeing them as the legitimate and institutionalized common voice of business.
Today, chambers of commerce exist in almost every country of the world.

Chambers of commerce today are as diverse in name as the business communities they represent. The word “chamber” is still used in most countries. No longer just chambers of “commerce” and “industry”, chambers also describe themselves as representing “manufacturers”, “entrepreneurship”, “training”, “shipping”, “commodity exchanges”, “agriculture”, etc, to help reflect the communities they serve.

Chambers have been established along bilateral lines (eg. British-Swedish Chamber of Commerce) as well as community and special interest chamber groups eg. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, Singapore Indian Chamber of Commerce, and the Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce. Transnational associations of chambers are also a feature of our landscape, such as the Confederation of Asia Pacific Chambers of Commerce and Association of Latin American Chambers of Commerce and Industry.

However, as diverse as chambers have become, representing a wide cross-section of interests and methods, their common goal remains to support business enterprises. Chambers are still the most important type of multi-sectoral business organizations in the world.

Two models: Private Law and Public Law

While chambers of commerce have evolved and grown based upon a nation’s own historical context, two basic models prevail.

The “continental” or “public law” model is founded on the remains of medieval guilds. From its origins in France, chambers were established quickly across other European countries like Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Spain. This type of chamber is called “public law” as it is established and regulated by national legislation. A key characteristic is that under most public law chamber systems, membership is mandatory for all enterprises.

Public law chambers are generally found on the European continent, as well as French speaking Africa and other former French colonies. Other countries like North Korea, Bhutan, as well as the majority of Arab nations fall under this model.

The predominant model in the world is the “private law” or “Anglo-Saxon” model originated in Great Britain and spread to other countries influenced by the British tradition. It is also prominent in the Nordic countries. Reflecting the more “laissez faire” economic policies of these nations, chambers are established by the desires and needs of their local business community. These chambers are not created and governed by public statutes, but are established under private law requiring only registration in business or association registers.

Private law models are found in Great Britain, other countries of the British Commonwealth, North America, Scandinavia, Belgium and Switzerland.
While most chambers can be classified as one of these two models, some countries have incorporated features of both systems more compatible with their own political and economic development. Such hydrid models can be found in China, Cuba, Paraguay as well as other Latin American countries, Singapore and Vietnam. Though established by national legislation, the chambers operate with voluntary membership systems.

A worldwide history of the chamber of commerce movement is currently being written by World Chambers Federation. Chambers are encouraged to send any information they may have on the chamber movement in their region to help us with the development and regular revisions of this document.

Chambers County, Alabama: Family History & Genealogy, Census, Birth, Marriage, Death Vital Records & More

Biographies, Oral Histories, Diaries, Memoirs, Genealogies, Correspondence

Church Records

Court and Legal Records

  • Chambers County Court Records (Source: USGenWeb Alabama Archives)
  • Chambers County Court Records Directory (Source: Court Records Free Reference and Directory)
  • Chambers County, Alabama, appraisement records, 1871-1907 Viewing restrictions may apply (Source: FamilySearch)
  • Chambers County, Alabama, court records, 1833-1882 Viewing restrictions may apply (Source: FamilySearch)
  • Livingston's Law Register, 1851 Chambers County Lawyers (Source: Google Books)

Enslaved people, enslavers, and slavery in general - information

  • 1850 Slave Schedules Chambers County (Source: Explore Ancestry for free) ($)
  • 1860 Slave Schedules (Source: Explore Ancestry for free) ($)
  • Chambers County (Source: Sankofagen Wiki)
  • United States Census (Slave Schedule), 1850 Chambers County (Source: FamilySearch)

Estate Records

  • Alabama Wills and Probate Records, 1753-1999 includes Chambers County (Source: Explore Ancestry for free) ($)
  • Chambers County Wills (Source: USGenWeb Alabama Archives)
  • Executors records, 1871-1914 administrators records, 1871-1927 Viewing restrictions may apply (Source: FamilySearch)
  • Probate judge miscellaneous court records, 1819-1893, Chambers County, Alabama Viewing restrictions may apply (Source: FamilySearch)


Introduction and Guides

Land Records

Libraries, Museums, Archives

  • Chambers County Data Collections (Source: Explore Ancestry for free) ($)
  • Cobb Memorial Archives Chambers County Library
  • Family History Library Holdings (Source: FamilySearch)
  • Library Directory for Chambers County, Alabama (Source: - A directory of libraries throughout the world)
  • PERiodical Source Index Search Chambers County, Alabama (Source: Find My Past)
  • USGenWeb Archives (Source: USGenWeb)

Mailing Lists and Message Boards

  • chambers_county_al Chambers County, AL Researcher (Source: Yahoo! Groups)
  • East Central Alabama Researchers mailing list RAN-CLAY
  • East Central Alabama Researchers Message Board (Source: RootsWeb)
  • GenForum Message Boards (Source:
  • RootsWeb Message Board (Source: RootsWeb)

ALCHAMBE Chambers County Genealogy

Maps and Gazetteers

  • Chambers County Gazetteer (Source: USGS Geographic Names Information System)
  • Chambers County Post Offices
  • Chambers County Post Offices 1846 (Source: Internet Archive)
  • Chambers County Postal Covers ($)
  • Chambers County Sanborn Maps (Source: The Library of Congress)
  • Historical Maps of Chambers County (Source: Historical Map Archive)
  • Individual County Chronologies Chambers County (Source: The Newberry Library)

Military Records and Histories

  • Alabama, Military Discharge Records, ca.1918 - ca.1962 (Source: FamilySearch)
  • Census of Pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Services, 1841 Chambers County (Source: Internet Archive)
  • Chambers County Military Records (Source: USGenWeb Alabama Archives)
  • List of Pensioners on the Roll January 1, 1883 Chambers County, Alabama (Source: Internet Archive)

Civil War

World War I

Miscellaneous Data

  • Alabama Voter Registration, 1867 includes Chambers County (Source: Explore Ancestry for free) ($)
  • Chambers County Public Records Links (Source: Free Public Records Directory)
  • Montani Publishing Publishers of Appalachian Memoirs mid-20th century ($)

Newspaper Records

  • Alabama Civil War and Reconstruction Newspapers (Source: Alabama Department of Archives & History)
  • Chambers County (Source: Newspaper Abstracts)
  • Chambers County Newspapers (Source: USGenWeb Alabama Archives)
  • Chronicling America Chambers County (Source: The Library of Congress)
  • LaFayette Historical Newspapers (Source: ($)
  • Lanett Historical Newspapers (Source: ($)

Obituaries and Funeral Home Records

  • Chambers County Obituaries (Source: USGenWeb Alabama Archives)
  • Lafayette Funeral Homes (Source:
  • LaFayette, Alabama Newspaper Obituaries (Source: GenealogyBank) ($)
  • Lanett Funeral Homes (Source:
  • Lanett, Alabama Newspaper Obituaries (Source: GenealogyBank) ($)
  • Obituary Index Individuals born in Chambers County
  • Valley Funeral Homes (Source:

Photographs, Postcards, Historical Images

  • Chambers County Built in America (Source: American Memory from the Library of Congress)
  • Chambers County Courthouse
  • Chambers County Pictures (Source: USGenWeb Alabama Archives)
  • Historical Postcards of Chambers County (Source: Explore Ancestry for free) ($)
  • Wheeler Dam America from the Great Depression to World War II (Source: American Memory from the Library of Congress)

School Records and Histories


Surnames Web sites, obituaries, biographies, and other material specific to a surname (135)

Tax Lists

Transportation and Industry

  • Building histories of Chambers County (Source: Philadelphia Architects and Buildings Project)
  • Chambers County N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual, 1880 (Source: HathiTrust Digital Library)
  • Chambers County Bridges (Source: Historic Bridges of the United States)
  • Extant Railroad/Railway Structures (Source: Railroad Station Historical Society)
  • Mines, Mining and Mineral Resources (Source: - the mineral and locality database)
  • Patents Chambers County, Alabama (Source: Google Patents)

Vital Records

  • Alabama Marriages, 1809-1920 includes Chamber, 1833-1900 (Source: Explore Ancestry for free) ($)
  • Chambers County AfAm Marriages (Source: USGenWeb)
  • Chambers County Vital Records (Source: Vital Records Information for the United States)
  • Chambers County, Alabama Vital Records Births, Marriages, Deaths & Social Security (Source: USGenWeb)
  • United States Census (Mortality Schedule), 1850 Chambers County (Source: FamilySearch)

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Chambers DE-391 - History

17 Years and Still Going Strong

We are open again! Now seating the dining room, bar, sidewalk, and our new outdoor patio across the street. Check out our new menu that is also available for take out. We encourage you to make a reservation for outdoor seating. We can’t wait to see you!

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Call us today for more information or to schedule your group catering event.

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Watch the video: Die Geschichte des Judentums 26 Im römischen Reich bis Diaspora